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Welcome To The City of Acre
District of Acre
عكا - עַכּוֹ
Ethnically cleansed days ago

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Town Statistics & Facts

Statistic/Fact

Value

Occupation date 18th of May 1948 (few days after the fall of Jaffa)
Elevation from the sea 30 meters
Maps Map of Acre city


Map of Acre district and neighboring villages

Battle for the city N/A
Acts of terror

The massacre of 79 Palestinians soon after occupation. 
No further information is available, so please do not hesitate to share with us any information about this unknown massacre.

Ethnic cleansing

Out of 13,000 Palestinians who used to call Acre home, only 3,000 Palestinians were allowed to stay.

Refugees' migration route

Before the encirclement of the city, some of Acre's inhabitants fled on foot to the Eastern hills, and some fled North to Lebanon. After the encirclement of the city, many of the inhabitants of the city and its defenders fled via boats to Tyre (Sour), Sayda, and Beirut Lebanon.  Click here to view a map that illustrates refugees' migration routes.

 
Ironically, often Zionists accuse the Arabs of plotting to push the Jews into the sea!

City's name through history
Domination
Period

Notes

Canaanites Acre was first founded  by either a Canaanite or a Phoenician Arab tribe known by al-Jar Jashyyein on Tel al-Fukhar, two kilometers East of the city.  For the Canaanites, Acre was known by 'Akkaw (meaning hot sand), which is derived from the Arabic word of 'Akk, meaning intense rubbing.
Ancient Egyptians 'Akka (as it's known to Arabs now)
Israelites Accho
Greeks Ptolemais
Crusades  Accon, Acre, Acri, and Saint Jeand Acre (Nights of Saint John Mary).
Zionist Akko
District's size In 1945, the district covered an area of 799.67 square kilometer, of which 2.79 square kilometer were allocated for public use, such as roads, wadies, railroads ... etc. Zionists owned only 25 square kilometer, which constituted 3.1% of the overall district's size.

During the Ottoman period, the district was made up of 60 plus villages, but during the British Mandate it was shrunk to 48 village (of which 26 villages where completely ethnically cleansed and defaced by the Zionists after the 194 war), eight Bedouin localities, and nine Zionist colonies.

It should noted that the villages of Iqrit, Tabrikha, and al-Mansura are Lebanese villages which became part of Palestine after WWI.

District's population
Year Total Muslim
Arabs
Christian
Arabs
Jews
1904 31,517 24,504 6,895 118
1909 36,720 28,256 8,334 130
1915 41,322 32,241 8,975 105
1922 35,535* 28,197** 6,194 144
1931 45,142*** 37,372** 7,672 296
1945 68,330 54,230** 11,150 2,950
* In the Ottoman period, Acre district was made off 60 plus villages, which explains the drop in population in 1922.
**   Statistic includes Sunni, Shee'a, Druze, and Bahai Muslim sects.
*** Number of houses in the district in 1931 was 9,978.
District's agriculture
Crops*

Metric Tons

Grain 8,853
Cereal 2,915
Lentil 561
Corn 2,405
Sesame 624
Olive 9,607
Watermelon 4,498
Grape 601
Fig 2,166
Almond 27
Vegetables 12,271
Citrus and Banana ** 716

Note that the above data are based upon 1943 statistics.

District's livestock

Type

count

Horses

1,093
Mules 259
Donkeys 6,082
Camels* 861
Caws 16,676
Sheep 41,995
Pigs 2,172
Chicken 81,929
Turkey 1,027

Note that the above data are based upon 1943 statistics.

It should be noted that predominantly all Palestinians' livestock was completely LOOTED and it became property of the "Jewish state".

District's major plantations
Crops*

Arab

Jewish

Olives** 54,246 0
Citrus*** 8,631 197
Banana 122 12

*     In dunums
**   Based on 1942 statistics
*** Based on 1945 statistics

It should be noted that predominantly all Palestinians' plantations were completely LOOTED, and it became property of the "Jewish state".

District's wadies and rivers
River/Wadi

Note

Wadi
Karkarat
It originates at Tabrikha, then it passes through Khirbat Karkarat (which was named after), and it terminates at Meinat al-Mesheirfah 2 km south of Ra's al-Naqurah.

This wadi is known to Israelis by Nahal Bezet

Wadi
 Bayt Jann
The wadi begins Southeast of Bayt Jann, then it inclines toward the Northwest, and before it intersects Wadi al-Buqy'ah. After that it's known by Wadi Hbeis.
Wadi al-Buqy'ah It originates from Jabal Haider, nearby Khirbat al-Sahleh, then it continues North passing into Khirbat al-Buqy'ah and Khirbat Ra's 'Abad just before it intersects Wadi Bayt Jann, at this point it's also known by al-Marj.
Wadi
al-Qarn
At Khirbat Qarhata, the above two wadies intersects and from wadi al-Qarn. The wadi continues East passing through Khirbat al-Zawyah and Ra's al-Nabe'a (known to Zionists by 'Ein Keziv and Rosh Hamabua), then it inclines into a gorge, deep wadi, until it terminates 5 km South of the Lebanese borders. This wadi produces almost 7.5 million cubic meter per year.

Wadi al-Qarn is known to Zionists by Nahal (meaning river) Keziv.

Wadi al-Sa'aleik A winter wadi that originates at Ma'lya and it terminates South of al-Zeeb

This wadi is known to Zionists by Nahal Sha'al, and in Arabic it means The Wadi Of The Outlaws.

al-Kabri Collection of springs named after the nearby destroyed Palestinian village of al-Kabri and their water supplied Wadi al-Mafshukh. During the rule of Ahmad Basha al-Jazzar (1775-1804), the springs' water was used to supply Acre with its drinking water. On average, these springs used to produces 9 million cubic meters aper year.
Wadi al-Mafshukh This wadi begins South of Ma'lya, then it passes through the destroyed Palestinian villages of al-Nahr and Umm al-Faraj, and it terminates 10 km North of Acre (close to Zionist colony of Naharya). 

This wadi is known to Zionists by Enot Ga'aton or Nahal Oshrat.

Wadi Majnunah The wadi is made up of another two unknown wadies (see the map) that intersect at 'Amqa, and it continues West to the sea passing by the al-Mazra'ah. 

This wadi is known to Zionists by Nahal Beit ha'Emek.

Wadi Ghamyah The wadi begins at Yrka, then it passes through Jules, Jadida, and al-Makr then it terminates just north of Acre.
al-Na'amyn River N/A
al-Muqtta'
River
N/A

For map of wadies and rivers :-
North of Acre

South of Acre
Note that Nahal in Hebrew means either a river or stream.

Nearby Swamps
Swamp Name Notes
al-Shachuttah Located few kilometers East of the city, and its waters were supplied by al-Na'amyn's  river winter waters. It covered an area between 2-3 square kilometers, and it had a depth of one meter.
Birkat
al-Hamam
This small lake covered an area close to 20 square meters, and next to it a swamp that used to cover an area of 500 square meters.
'Ayn
al-Baqarh
Located few kilometer West of the city, and its waters were fed from a nearby spring called 'Ayn al-Baqarh.
City  size In 1945, the city covered an area of 1,538 dunums, of which 52 dunums were allocated for roads and railroads, and Zionists owned only 6 dunums of the total city size.
Industries Acre before occupation had industries in the following areas: 
Glass, clay pottery, mirrors, mosaics, textile, paint, soft drinks (Sbins), grain mills, and a factory for ice making.

It should be noted that Acre's port and its regional importance had declined soon after the development of Haifa City and its port in the 1920s and 1930s. Since then Acre's industries, port, and khans has been cannibalized in favor of the newly developed Haifa City.

Since Israeli still maintains and enforces the "Law Of Absentees", most of Acre's industries, farms, buses, cars, railroads, cattle, real states, ... etc. have been looted and became the property of the "Jewish state". When similar injustices were perpetrated against Europe's Jewish citizens during WWII (by the Germans and the Swiss), the Jews of the world demanded justice for their looted art works and properties. The question which begs to be asked is :- 

Are the Palestinian people entitled for compensation for their looted properties?

Distance from other towns
Town Distance From Jaffa
Lebanese borders 17 km north
Naharya 10 km north
al-Na'amyn bridge 2 km south
Haifa 21 km via the lake shore drive and 17 km via the railroad
Tyre (Sour), Lebanon 40 km north
Population
Year Total Muslim
Arabs
Christian
Arabs
Jews
1900 6,000 N/A N/A N/A
1904 8,146 5,748 2,319 79
1908 9,279* 7,061 2,111 107
1912 12,000 9,000 3,000 N/A
1922 6,420 4,883 1,344 78
1931 7,897** 6,076 1,523 237
1938 8,800 N/A N/A 250
1945 12,360 9,890 2,330 50
1949 4,020 3,146*** N/A 874
1950 9,000 3,800*** N/A 5,200
1965 31,700 3,000*** N/A N/A
1970 N/A 4,000*** N/A N/A
Soon after the development of Haifa city and its port in the 1920s and 1930s, Acre experience a drop in its population. See Haifa City for the proportional population increase for more details.
*     In 1908, Acre had 1,000 houses, 6 mosques, 2 prisons, 5 churches, 166 warehouses, 13 coffee shops, and 415 shops.
**    In 1931, Acre had 1,653 houses.
***  The statistic includes Christian Arabs as well.
Schools
School Type

Notes

Government The government managed three schools: 
The 1st was a complete high school for boys, the 2nd was an elementary school for boys, and the 3rd was an elementary school for girls.

In 1943, the boys' schools had a total enrollment of 660 boys and a staff of 19 instructors, and the girls' school had a total enrollment of 531 girls and a staff of 15 instructors.

Muslim Altogether, Acre had 6 Islamic schools which all had an enrollment of 447 boys, and 121 girls, and a staff of 19 instructors.
Christian Altogether, Acre had 4 Christian schools, which all had an enrollment of 309 boys and 190 girls.
City Khans
Khan Name

Notes

al-'Umdan It was built by the Ahmad Basha al-Jazzar which is located next to the main port, and sometimes it was known by Khan al-Jazzar. Its marble columns were cannibalized from the archeological ruins nearby Qisarya, and in 1900 a big clock tower was erected at its entrance to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Sultan Abdul Hameid II rise to power. 

Currently, this Khan is being used as a night club.

al-Shuna Located next to Khan al-'Umdan which was built during the rule of al-Thahir al-'Umar.
al-Frunj One of the oldest Khans in Acre. Originally, it was built by European merchants to store their goods during the Ottoman period.
al-Shawardeh Located next to Burj al-Sultan and it was built during the Crusaders period.
City neighborhoods Acre was made up of the following neighborhoods and public places: 

al-Jazzar, al-Majdala, al-Meina (port), al-Raml, al-Qal'a, Central Prison (also known by the Lawman), al-Suq al-Abyyad (The White Market), Burj al-Commander, Burj al-Sultan,  al-Fakhura, al-Karkun Square, Dar al-Asliha, new Acre was built just outside the city walls, ... etc.

Click here, for a detail map of Acre's neighborhood before occupation.

Mosques
Mosque Name

Notes

al-Jazzar The renowned al-Jazzar Mosque was built in 1781 and it still contains the tomb of its builder Ahmad Basha al-Jazzar (the butcher who defeated Napoleon).
al-Raml Located nearby al-Suq al-Sharqi (The Eastern Market).
al-Mu'alaq Located nearby the Karkun square, which was famous for its gardens and high ceiling.
Abu Sinan Also known by al-Jaryaneh and it is located nearby Acre's old port. Currently, the mosque and its beautiful gardens are in a state of neglect.
al-Zytun Located in al-Zytun neighborhood.
al-Majadleh Built at the end of the British Mandate period, and now it's being used as soup kitchen for the poor.
al-Lababiedi The only mosque outside of the city walls which was built before occupation. Currently, the mosque is in a state of neglect and in need of serious renovation!
Churches
Church Name

Notes

Saint Andrews Roman Catholic church located in al-Fakhura neighborhood, which was built on the foundation of a Crusader's church .
Saint Johns Roman Catholic church located in al-Fakhura neighborhood, which was built by Franciscan monks in 1737.
Saint George Greek Orthodox church located next to al-Jazzar mosque.
Saint Francis Latin church located next to Khan al-Frunj.
Mar Jerjiss It's the largest and most prominent church in Acre where most Christian festivals used to be celebrated.
Shrines/Maqams
Maqam Name

Notes

al-Shaykh
Ghanim
It's a beautiful maqam which was built for one of Salaheddin al-Ayubi commanders who fought the Crusades. It's located next to Southeaster city wall, and during the 1948 war it was used as the burial place for several Palestinian martyrs like Saleh al-Dukhi.
'Izz al-Deen It's a maqam which was built for one of Salaheddin's commanders who fought the Crusaders. It's located on Eastern coast, just outside old city, and now it's being used as a center for new Jewish immigrants.
Abu 'Atbah Located just outside the city, and it's suspected to belong to a person who fought the Crusaders as well.
al-Shaykh
Yanis
Located nearby the northern entrance of al-Jazzar Mosque. Its garden has been demolished, and it's currently being used as parking space for Taxis.
al-Nabi
Saleh
A shrine dedicated to the Arab prophet Saleh (who has been buried west of al-Ramla), and it's located in the current official city cemetery, just outside the eastern city wall.
Zawyet
al-Shathliyyah
It belongs to Tariqat al-Shathliyyah which was founded by Ali Nur al-Deen al-Yashertie, and it includes a palace known by Saraya Abdullah Basha.
City's income and expenses
Year Income* Expenses*
1927 5,154 3,322
1932 4,909 9,194
1935 8,300 6,400
1939 4,083 4,377
1940 11,328 6,668
1943 9,750 10,555
1944 15,153 12,078
* In Palestinian Pound
Rainfall and humidity
Year Rainfall* Humidity
1926 675.9 N/A
1927 608.3 N/A
1928 514.7 N/A
1929 786.6 N/A
1930 677.6 N/A
1931 570 N/A
1932 426.9 N/A
1933 347.3 N/A
1934 477 N/A
1935 784 N/A
1936 469.4 N/A
1937 466 N/A
1938 837.2 N/A
1939 511.2 69%
1940 599.4 63%
1941 523.4 68%
1942 328.2 67%
1943 780.6 72%
1944 443.1 69%
* In millimeters
Average temperature
Month/1944 Average* Average Hi* Average Low*
January 12.9 17.1 8.8
February 14.3 19.3 9.2
March 16.2 21.6 10.7
April 18.7 24.5 12.9
May 19.3 23.9 14.8
June 23.2 27.8 18.5
July 25.6 29.6 21.6
August 25.7 30 21.4
September 24.3 28.9 19.8
October 22.8 28.1 17.5
November 18.4 22.9 14
December 14.7 18.6 10.9
Overall Avg. 19.7 24.4 15
* In centigrade.
For conversion purposes, temperature of 24 centigrade = 75 fahrenheit.
Fishing industry
Season Quantity in Tons Worth in Palestinian Pound
1925 44 3,033
1925-1926 42 2,292
1927-1928 48 3,269
1928-1929 48 2,729
1929-1930 37 3,227
1933-1934 61 3,486
1934-1935 65 3,167
1935-1936 79 3,686
1936-1937 45 2,085
1937-1938* 53 2,555
1938-1939 60 3,115
1939-1940 66 3,852
1940-1941 69 3,982
1941-1942 51 4,515
1942-1943 30 6,790
1943-1944 59 18,520
1944-1945 53 18,000
* Palestine's total fishing for this year was 1,699 tons.
Note: All fishing in the Haifa area was Palestinian owned and operated.

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Bibliography

Our primary sources for the above data was Biladuna Filisteen (2nd set, volume 7) by Mustafa Murad al-Dabagh and The Palestine Encyclopedia.

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Samer Akkawi Akkawi Akka, Palestine
على الحانوتي - نينوى, نينوى
Tarek chebli Aka Palestine live in beirut
Rami Dakhlallah Dakhlallah Akka, Palestine
Shadia Shahin Shahin Akka
Sulayman Akkawi 3akkawi Acre (3akka), Palestine - the most beautiful country
Mahmoud W. Kassem Acre Abu Dhabi
Wissam Z Kassem Acre Abu Dhabi
fifi mayassi acre saida, lebanon
احمد سواعد عرب السواعد عكا, 1948
عكاوية وبفتخر - عكا
Mohamed Eldabous - Gaza, Palestine
بيومي بيومي عمان, الاردن
Ahnaf - NC, USA
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