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Posted by Khaled El Sala on June 13, 2008
Introduction:

This time line is intended to give the readers an idea about event which happened in Majdal Yaba and the surrounding places which belonged to Majdal Yaba lands historically. Any mention of Tel, Tel Ras El Ain, Aphek, Apqu, Pegae, Phgai, Arethusa, Antipatris, Abu-Futrus, 'Asizi Yarkon, Al-Mirr, Kafar Sallam or Biñar-baši is indicative of The Tel located at the North East shore of Auja River source, any mention of Mirabel, Majdal Yaba Tower, Majdal Yafa, Rayyan Fortress, the Tower of Aphek, Aphek Turris, Aphecou Pyrgos, and Migdal Yaba village, is indicative of the village located 3.6 Km to the South East of the Auja River source.

The Middle Pleistocene Age
400,000 BC
human-like teeth found in the Qesem cave near Rosh Ha’Ayin (48)

(The Chalcolithic Period)

4500-3300 BCE
The earliest settlements started at Majdal Yaba at Tel Ras El Ain, Built on the lands of Majdal Yaba

(The Early Bronze Age I)

3100 BCE
A large town founded at the Tel Ras El Ain

3000 BCE
A walled city stood at the site of Tel Ras El Ain with a large palace and residential structures

2200 BCE
The city at Tel Ras El Ain was abandoned

2000 BCE
Beginning with the site's resettlement. The city's acropolis, including a large palace built on massive fills, was founded. An additional palace was built on the western slope of the Tel.

19th Century BCE
Majdal Yaba first mentioned in Ancient Egyptian texts

18th Century BCE
The western palace was replaced by a residential quarter and the city's administrative center returned to the acropolis. A pottery-producing area was founded in the SW quarter, near the springs. Additional finds from this period included several cemeteries. The large palace on the acropolis remained in use

(The Late Bronze Age)

1550 BCE
This is the period of Egyptian rule in Canaan. Settlement at Aphek declined, though the acropolis was occupied throughout.

1480 BCE
Aphek, due to its strategic location, is mentioned in several Egyptian inscriptions, including the topographical list of Thutmose III

1440 BCE
Aphek mentioned at the annals of Amenhotep II

1230 BCE
The residency at Aphek was destroyed, and the piles of rubble remained untouched for centuries to come.

(The final centuries of the Late Bronze Age)

1200 BCE

Aphek was became an Egyptian administrative center, and a well-preserved two-story governor's residency replaced the former palaces.

(The Iron Age)

New excavations announced in Dec 2014 found an impressive 30 m x 40 m 23 rooms farm house. Based on ceramics and other indications It can be said that the house had been in use for roughly 600 years, from the Iron Age II through to the Hellenistic empire. (43)

The settlement consisted of well-dressed stone houses in two areas
on the acropolis, However, it was abandoned after a short time.



1150 BCE Late 12th Century BCE,
The site was occupied by the Philistines, as is shown by large amounts of bi-chrome ware found at the site, together with a scarab bearing the cartouche of Ramses IV. An inscription in an unknown script may be "early Philistine" writing.

Aphek's strategic importance is reflected in the biblical traditions that mention it as a staging ground for the Philistine attacks on Israel (1 Sam. 4:1-3; 29:1-4), one of a series of sites on the North Philistine
frontier.

1104 BCE
Samson's 20-year judgeship evidently began shortly before the battle of Aphek (1104 B.C.) at which time Eli died (1 Sam. 4:18). (32)

1066 BCE
The Philistine army assembled in Aphek for two major battles against the Israelites. King Saul tested his people the river; whoever drank from it, would not follow him in battle.

1007 BCE
The slaughter of King Saul and his three sons Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua on Mount Gilboa and the capture of the Ark of the Covenant (1 Samuel 31:2; 1 Chronicles 10:2)

1000 BCE
The Philistines' withdrew - Perhaps driven from the site by David - The site was occupied by settlers from the Israelite hill-country. The 10th century stratum includes "silo"-pits, four-roomed houses and pottery typical of the period.


925 BCE
The sudden violent destruction of the site was attributed to the campaign of Shishak . Due to both accelerated erosion of the upper strata of the acropolis, and to the city's decline into a minor border-post.

8th Century BCE

740 BC New excavations announced in Dec 2014 found an impressive 30 m x 40 m 23 rooms farm house dating to the time before Iron Age, Farm houses during this period served as small settlements of sorts whose inhabitants participated in processing agricultural produce. The numerous wine presses discovered in the vicinity of the settlement indicate the wine industry was the most important branch of agriculture in the region. A large silo, which was used to store grain, shows that the ancient residents were also engaged in growing cereal.” (42)

7th Century BCE
Assyrians and the Babylonians mention it as a stronghold

671 BCE
The place was mentioned "Apqu in the land of Samaria" in the LXX-L version of 2 Kings 13:22 that was conquered by Esarhaddon on his way to Egypt. Esarhaddon's description of his journey to "the stream of Egypt"

600 BCE
The place was mentioned in an Aramaic and in the papyrus from Saqqarah. the site continued to be of importance on the main road from Syria to Egypt. The site was eventually abandoned,

6th Century BCE:
Recent excavations in Dec 2014 found out Farm house dating back to Iron age which continued to be used through the Assyrian, Persian & Hellenistic periods (42)(43)

(Hellenistic Period)

4th Century

Began in the country with the arrival of Alexander the Great, one of the greatest military leaders of antiquity. With Alexander’s victory over the Persian army

3rd century BCE
A small town was built on the Tel itself. The Tel renamed Pegae. One historian assumes that most of the town's inhabitants at this time were Jewish

333 BCE
Iron age Farm house continues to be used

259 BCE
Pegae mentioned in the Ptolemaic Zenon Papyri

132 BCE
Pegae mentioned in Josephus recounting of Alexander Jannaeus fortifications, he drew a trench with a wall and woden towers from Antipatris to the coasts of Joppa, 150 stadia in length, in order to prevent the passage of Antichus.

1st Centure BC

Ras El Ain was refounded by the Roman Pompey the Great as Arethusa

37-4 BCE
King Herod a Jewish Idumean (biblical Edom), who ruled the region on behalf of the Roman Empire renamed the city Antipatris to commemorate his father Antipater, choosing the site because it was in the "loveliest of plains... with an abundance of rivers and trees." the city's commercial district was rebuilt and expanded, with its main north-south street becoming a Roman-style cardo.

(Christian Era)

60 CE
The Apostle Paul spent a night here while being taken from Jerusalem to Caesarea (Acts 23,31).


66-70 CE
The city was devastated during the southern battles of the First Jewish-Roman War, Josephus tells of Jews fighting Cestius Gallus at the Tower of Aphek؟ and of Vespasian passing through, Evidence of the city's violent destruction was found throughout the site, including a coin from year 2 of the rebellion, 67 CE

2nd Century CE
The city was rebuilt over a large area, but the poor quality of the construction, such as uneven pavement stones and the unfinished odeon or small theater, seems to hint at the site؟s limited importance

3rd Century CE
The well-appointed houses and shops and the many coins found show that the town knew some prosperity during the 3rd century, A miqveh (Jewish ritual bath) is evidence of a Jewish population

363 CE
A letter attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem mentions the town's destruction in the great earthquake

Later 4th and 5th century,
Theophanes, the Bordeaux Pilgrim and Paula, as well as Byzantine-period lists, mention Antipatris between either Caesarea or Dora to the north and Lydda to the south

404 CE
Jerome calls Antipatris "a half-ruined town"

449 to 451 CE
Bishop Polychronius of Antipatris is known to have participated in both the Synod of Ephesus in 449 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451

614 CE,

Jerusalem fell to an invading Sassanid Persian army under Shahrbaraz

(Muslim Era)

April 637 CE,

After a siege of four months, Sophronius offered to surrender the city of Jerusalem and pay a jizya (tribute), Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city. Following the Caliph's instructions, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan proceeded to Caesarea, and once again laid siege to the port city, He must have passed via Majdal Yaba in his way. Amr and Shurahbil marched to complete the occupation of Palestine and Jordan, a task that was completed by the end of the year.

April 27th, 750 CE
The Abbasid Abdullah Ben Ali, Abu Al-Abbas Al-Saffah's uncle, marched to Abu Futrus, (12)

June 25th, 750 CE
Abdullah Ben Ali invited 80 Umaiyids to Abu-Futrus with fair promises . Then, apparently aroused suddenly to revenge and killed them all. (12)

5th April 885 AD,
At the banks of Auja River, Abul Abbas Ibn Al-Muwaffaq, later known as Abbasid Caliph al Mu'tadid, fought at the battle of Tawahin (The Mills) with Khumaruwaih ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun, Ibn Al-Muwaffaq first won this battle, Khumaruwaih fled to Egypt. Ibn Al-Muwaffaq army later lost then he fled as well to Damascus. (12)

975 AD,
The Fatimite Caliph of Egypt Al 'Aziz concquered and took prisoner Aftakin the Turk with his army on the eastern bank of Auja River opposite the ruined castle of Majdaliyabah (12)

1064, A.D

According to the Chronicle of Marianus Scottus, Siegfried, Archbishop of Mainz, who, in company with the Bishops of Utrecht, Bamberg and Ratisbon,
was conducting a great company of pilgrims to the Holy City, was set upon in these parts by the wild Arabs, and took refuge in a "castellum vacuum Cavar Salim nomine," from whence they were delivered by the Governor of Ramlah. M. Schefer supposes Cavar Salim to be Kafar Sallam, which, he adds, was abandoned by its inhabitants in the eleventh century. Sir C. Wilson would identify Kafar Sallam with the modern Ras al 'Ain, the Antipatris of Acts xxiii. 31, and the Castle Mirabel of the Crusading Chronicles.

(Crusaders Era)

1095 AD
The First Crusade was launched by Pope Urban II with the primary goal of responding to an appeal from Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, requesting that western volunteers come to his aid and help to repel the invading Seljuk Turks from Anatolia, in modern day Turkey.

7 June 1099 AD
The crusaders under the command of Godfrey de Bouillon reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids of Egypt only the year before.

17 June 1099 AD
A party of Genoese mariners under Guglielmo Embriaco arrived at Jaffa, and provided the Crusaders with skilled engineers, and perhaps more critically, supplies of timber (cannibalised from the ships) to build siege towers

1100 to 1128
Years of setbacks and consolidation for the crusaders, the seljuks, and the fatimids

7 September 1101
The first Battle of Ramla (or Ramleh) took place between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Fatimids of Egypt.

17 May 1102
The second Battle of Ramla (or Ramleh) took place between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Fatimids of Egypt. King Baldwin I of Jerusalem escaped under the cover of night. With the arrival of a fleet of French and German Crusaders, Baldwin I was able to assemble an army of eight thousand men. In the subsequent Battle of Jaffa, he led a cavalry charge that once again broke the Egyptian lines and forced the Fatimid forces to flee to Ascalon

27 August 1105
The third Battle of Ramla (or Ramleh) took place between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Fatimids of Egypt. the Egyptians were reinforced by a Seljuk Turkish force from Damascus. After they withstood the initial Frankish cavalry charge the battle raged for most of the day. Although Baldwin I was once again able to drive the Egyptians from the field of battle and loot the enemy camp he was unable to pursue them any further

1110
Jaffa was given to Hugh II of Le Puiset and was given the title count of Jaffa

1123
The Fatimids planned to capture the coastal city of Jaffa. In the Battle of Yibneh (Yibna), a Crusader force led by Eustace Grenier crushed a Fatimid army from Egypt sent by Vizier Al-Ma'mum

1131
Fulk of Anjou and Melisende become King and Queen of Jerusalem.

1134
Hugh II of Le Puiset (Hugh II of Jaffa) count of Jaffa, revolted against King Fulk, along with Roman of Le Puy, lord of Oultrejordain

1134 - 1141 CE
Majdal Yaba village was renamed "Mirabel" and it was separated from Jaffa after the revolt of Hugh II of Le Puiset against King Fulk of Jerusalem and was given to Manasses of Hierges then to Barisan of Ibelin constable of Jaffa under Hugh II. He was married to Helvis of Ramla daughter of Baldwin I of Ramla, he ruled up to his death 1150


1143 - 1150 CE

Manasses of Hierges, an important crusader lord, and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, As constable he was in command of the army. He was the son of Hodierna of Rethel and Héribrand II of Hierges; Hodierna was a sister of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Manasses was also cousin of Queen Melisende wife of King Fulk. He was married to Helvis of Ramla, widow of Barisan of Ibelin father of Baldwin of Ibelin. In right of Helvis he ruled Ramlah and Mirabel and virtually the entire southern part of Palestine except Ibelin.

1150 CE - 1169
Hugh of Ibelin succeeded his father Barisan of Ibelin as ruler of Ibelin then Ramla after the exile of Manasses

1152 CE
Baldwin III, eldest son of Queen Melisande and King Fulk of Jerusalem, surprised and captured his mother supporter Manasses in Mirabel, Manasses was compelled to leave the country, Baldwin III appointed his friend Humphrey II, Lord of Toron, as Constable of Jerusalem, and Melisande was allowed to retire to Nablus

1156 CE

Usāmah ibn Munqidh (5) in his journey to Palestine reported the tyranny of a crusader lord in Majdal Yaba near Nablus, Hugh of Ibelin, (5a) where he imposed excessive taxes on Muslims, he asked Muslims to pay four times as much tax as other Christians in nearby places, and he used to torture them and even cut their legs. Muslims endured all of this but when he started underminding their religious freedom, forcing them to work in Fridays, and when he tortured a Muslim Imam in Jamaeen near Nablus - who used to call for repelling against the tyranny - they could not take this anymore, so the inhabitants of eight villages, which included Ibn Qudamah's family, left their homes in 1156 AC and migrated to Damascus, where they founded "Al-Salahiah" suburb near it. And they made it a point to wage holy war against the crusaders (5b)

1158 CE

Al-Mirr is mentioned in reference to the Byzantine mill and dam repaired by the Crusaders

1162 to 1171 CE

Baldwin of Ibelin ruled Majdal Yaba as an independent lordship of the Kingdom of Jerusalem


(Ayyubids Era)

1175 CE

Shiekh Baraz ed Din was born (47)

1177 CE

The Muslim Ayyubides under Saladin marched their army from south of Palestine northwards past Ascalon to the Castle of Mirabel which was being used to defend the road from Jaffa to Jerusalem

July 1187,

After Hittin, Sultan Saladin conquered Acre, he stayed there, and wrote to his younger brother Al Adel I, in Egypt of his triumphs, Al-Adel arrived later with his soldiers and conquered Majdal Yaba castle (5c)
Saladin's younger brother, al-Adil I, conquered Mirabel, but did not destroy the fortress

1191 AD
Saladin used Majdal Yaba as base for carrying out raids against the Crusaders, and he camped outside of it

August 1191 AD
After the Franks took back Acre from Saladin, they proceeded to Ashkelon, Saladin ordered them raided, when they reached Haifa, and Saladin proceeded to Majdal Yaba, then took the river to Caesarea (5c) page 4/271

Sept 1191 AD
After the battle of Arsuf, Saladin camped at Auja River, and the English & Franks went to Jaffa (5c) page 4/275

1192 AD

On the 4th day of June the crusaders headed to Majdal Yaba village. The Crusaders left their tents, the fighting started and Muslims killed of them numerous numbers, losing only one Muslim fighter, Saladin gave orders to dismantle the walls of "Mirabel" after his defeat at the battle of Arsuf (44)

July 1192
During the siege of Jaffa, and upon arrival of the English help led by King Richard I of England, he asked for peace provided that Saladin gives them coastal areas from Ashkelon and beyond. Saladin offered only Jaffa to Tyre. Negotiations failed and the crusaders moved from Acre towards Jaffa, so Saladin camped in Auja River (5c) page 4/322

August 1192
Saladin sent a letter to his brother Al-Adel I to agreed to sign a peace treaty with the English Crusaders led by King Richard I of England provided that Ramla, Lud, and Majdal Yaba would stay with him. (5c) page 4/325

1226 CE
Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi mentions it as Majdal Yafa or "Tower of Jaffa", probably due to its proximity to the city of Jaffa. He says it was a village with a "formidable fort

June, 1240 CE

With the arrival of the English crusade led by Richard of Cornwall, brother of the King Henry III of England and brother-in-law of Emperor Frederick II, Richard immediately resumed the work of refortifications initiated by his predecessor in Ashkelon. Salih Ayub, King of Egypt, offered him a new treaty to be complementary to the earlier treaty held with Theobald IV, Count of Champagne, France. His offer this time included his readiness to recognize the legitimacy of the concessions made by his opponent and uncle Al-Saleh Ismail, King of Damascus, to the Crusaders, so that the Galilee, and Jaffa and Ashkelon, and all of the city of Jerusalem, including Bethlehem and Majdal Yaba, in addition to Tiberias, Safed, and Belvoir Castle and Al-Tur Castle, all included in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1242

Death of Shiekh Baraz ed Din (47)

(Mamluk Era)

1261
In September 1261, sultan Baybars reached a modus vivendi with John of Ibelin, ruler of Jaffa, Baybars around this time used that harbor to import grain from Egypt to Syria to help relieve famine. By the early fall of this same year, Baybars concluded a treaty with the Franks of Acre, based on one concluded several years before with the last Ayyubid ruler of Damascus, al-Nasir Yusuf; this recognized the status quo and stipulated the exchange of prisoners. (40)

1264
In the early spring of 1264, Mamluk troops raided Ramla, while in June the Franks launched a foray against Ascalon. Baybars retaliated by ordering his governor in the area to raid Caesarea and ‘Athlith, laying waste to the territory between them (40)

1265
After the Mongols' retreat, sultan Baybars now turned his attention to the local Franks, he camp, now at the Awja’ or Yarkon River. From there he ordered the construction of unspecified siege machines (manjaniqat) from locally gathered wood: four large ones were built, besides numerous small machines. Orders were sent out to unnamed castles to assemble more siege machines, as well as skilled workers and stonemasons. Meanwhile, the already present troops were ordered tobuild ladders, probably also from locally-collected wood. From Awja’ the sultan moved with his troops to ‘Uyun al-Asawer, page 63 (40)

1266
After the fall of Jaffa to the Mamluks, Sultan Baibars sent chiefs from Deir Ghassaneh to protect Majdal Yaba's Tower

Late 13th century,
Majdal Yaba was abandoned

(Ottoman Era)

1516 CE

The region was included within the domain of Damascus and the fortress was owned by families from Nablus, in a 2014 excavation, Limekilns in the area were noted already in the preliminary surveys. Seven limekilns were excavated. All of the kilns were dated to the Ottoman period on the basis of their construction method (49)


1526 CE
A waqf (Endownment) mentions a mill (Tahun) located on the river (al-Awja) passing the village of Ras al-Ayn.

1573 CE
Beginning of the construction of the 8,000 m2 Ottoman fort of Biñar-baši (fountain-head, Rās el-Ain in Arabic), complete with barracks and a small mosque, which dominates the summit of the Tel today. The present Ottoman fortress was built following the publication of a firman as follows:

"You have sent a letter and have reported that four walls of the fortress Ras al-Ayn have been built, but inside them no mosque and houses have been built ad the earth has not been removed from outside it . . . I have commanded that when this firman arrives you shall, in accordance with my order and on the said terms, have the said commandant build the above mentioned rooms and mosque with its minaret and have the guards remove the earth outside and clean and tidy the place.

1579 CE

Another Firman indicates that there may have been an older, possibly Mamluk, fortress on the site which was built over in 1573, This document begins with the phrase: "When some time ago the fortress of Ras al Ayn was built anew ..."

1596,

Majdal Yaba was a small village in the nahiya ("sub-district") of Jabal Qubal, part of Sanjak Nablus. It paid taxes on wheat, barley, beehives and goats. The population consisted of 8 Muslim families (44 tax payers)

(Frensh Invasion)

March 3, 1799

General Kleber, Commander in Chief of French forces, received the order to push detachments after having taken up position to the south of the river Nahar-al-Ougeh, to watch enemy movements, and to prepare for the army to march to Acre. He instructed General Damas (Lannes), on March 6, to undertake a reconnaissance in the mountains inhabited by the Naplousains, who seemed to be hostile. Turks were firing from behind rocks and down precipices. The small column was obliged to retreat with heavy losses where sixty Franks were killed and more than double the number wonded, and Damas's arm was broken (7-8 March) (16)

March 10, 11, 12 1799

An attempt was made to reconnoiter in the mountains toward Naplouse. General Damas (Lannes), with a unit from Kleber's division, was sent to carry this out. He plunged into the gorges that led there and was soon attacked by a group of peasants who, climbing among the mountains whose tracks and trails were familiar to them, fell upon our troops and wounded many of them. Prudence dectated retreat, but that was extremely difficult. Deep in the mountains, our soldiers had great trouble in extricating themselves; the general was dangerously wounded. A large number of Moghrebins who had been employed and had accompanied us from El-Arich fought very well in the rear guard duing the retreat. (16)(29)

1799
Pierre Jacotin, director of all the surveyors and geographers working in the Nile Valley during the campaign in Egypt of Napoleon drew a map of Palestine and named the village Megdeh (22)

1808 to 1839
Al-Mirr village was founded during the reign of sultan Mahmud II from whom the village derived its other name (al-Mahmudiyya)

Mid 1823
Mohammad Shahin Agha, Mutasallim of Jaffa and Jerusalem after wards, rented the endowed lands of Majdal Yaba

1834
Al Qassem lead revolt in Jabal Nablus against Ibrahim Basha rule who revenged by killing Al Qassem leaders and expelling the others, this allowed Al Rayyan to lead all of Jammain until the return of the Ottoman rule in 1840 (45)

1841
Sheikh Sadik of Medgdel suceeded Suleiman Abdul Hady as Governor of Nablus, but he only remained in office for three days. (15) or three years (45)

April 1843,
Rev. Dr. Eli Smith visited Majdal Yaba village with Rev. S. H. Calhoun and found The fortress (known as the "Rayyan Fortress") The village was in ruins

1850
Shiekh Sadeq joined the revolt against Ottomans

Nov 7th, 1850
Thursday, James Finn future British Consul to Jerusalem and Palestine, visited the village and found it and the castle in a very dilapidated condition, he met Sheikh Al Sadiq''s family, and slept in the castle for a night, he surveyed the church attached to the castle and saw the Greek inscription upon the lintel signifying "Martyr Memorial Church of the Holy Herald (27) page 133. Muhammad al-Sadiq Al-Rayyan Ruled 25 villages of western Jammain from Majdal Yaba (24)

1851

Shiekh Sadeq was taken to exile by the Ottomans to Trebizond, (Gr. Trapezus), a city of Asia Minor, situated on the Black Sea (15).

April 26th, 1852
When Rev. Dr Eli Smith visited the village again with Edward Robinson, he reported that the fortress had been rebuilt and also served as a palace for the ruling sheikh. Sheikh al-Sadiq, however, had been banished by the Ottomans

10th May, 1852

Carel Willem Meredith van de Velde, auther of the Map of Holy Land, visited the village and met Shiekh who gave him some information relative to several places to the east of Majdal Yaba which have been accordingly introduced into the map.

1854
When Ali Toukan was appointed as Qaim Makam of Nablus he reappointed Mousa Sadiq and Sulayman Sadeq to take back western Jammaen under their rule

1855-56
Al Qassem attacked Al Rayyan villages, they burned seven villages and looted the rest, Al Rayyan survived by seeking refuge in Nablus (45)

1859
Sulayman Rayyan was in control of Majdal Yaba village

1860
The Rayyan clan had lost all of their influence in the sanjak after they were defeated by the Qasims. The Rayyan continued to live in and rule Majdal Yaba village, but the village ceased to be a center of power.

1866
Major Wilson visited Kala'at Ras El Ain and upheld it to be Antipatris (28) page n174

1868
Guérin visited the region in the nineteenth century CE and described villages and ruins, among them Khirbat Te’ena, Qasr es Sitt and Majdal Yaba (50)

1873
Members of the Survey of Western Palestine who visited the village reported a large building of "massive masonry", probably a former church, with a side door inscribed in Greek "Memorial of Saint Cerycus (Cyriacus or Kerykos)" A little further to the north are fragments of a building, which appears to be Crusading. At Shiekhh Baraz ed Din there are several rough tombs and caves, one cemented. (25) page 361

1882
Members of the British survey (SWP) again described the major ruins in the region (51)

1888,
A school was founded in Majdal Yaba village

March 31, 1890
The groundbreaking ceremony to construct the Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway took place in Yazur, attended by the governor of Palestine, Ibrahim Hakki Pasha, the Grand Mufti of Gaza, Joseph Navon, a Jewish entrepreneur from Jerusalem and the Swiss Protestant banker Johannes (John) Frutiger (37)

1912
Bezalel Yaffe built "The concrete House" near el-Mirr which was the first structure built of reinforced concrete in Palestine with the first pumps driven by diesel engines for irrigation of Petah Tikva. It is located on the banks of Yarkon river. (41)

1915
The Ras El Ain Railway track was laid down with the help of a German Engineer Heinrich August Meissner, for the Ottoman war effort, as Ottoman troops were stationed in the fortress at Antipatris (36)

(British Invasion)

1917
During the First World War, Rās el-Ain was an Ottoman stronghold against the British, who bombarded the fortress

1917
The Zionist movement had managed to purchase more than 420,000
dunams form many areas including the Petah Tikva Kfar Saba block, northeast of Jaffa; and the Judean colonies southeast of Jaffa (30) page 31

14 November 1917
The New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade defeated a substantial rearguard; the 3rd Ottoman Infantry Division at Ayun Kara. (33)

21-22 December 1917

The combined effects of this series of devastating failures by the Ottoman Army was to see their 8th Army give up Jaffa and retire across the Nahr el Auja while their 7th Army withdrew into the Judean Hills to defend Jerusalem. They had withdrawn approximately 50 miles (80 km), losing 10,000 prisoners and 100 guns and suffering heavy casualties. (33)

According to General Sir Edmund Allenby's despatch, the passage of the Nahr El Auja on the night of 20؟21 December 1917 by the Division's three Brigades "reflects great credit on the 52nd (Lowland) Division. It involved considerable preparation, the details of which were thought out with care and precision. The sodden state of the ground, and, on the night of the crossing, the swollen state of the river, added to the difficulties, yet by dawn the whole of the infantry had crossed. The fact that the enemy were taken by surprise, and, that all resistance was overcome with the bayonet without a shot being fired, bears testimony to the discipline of this division. The operation, by increasing the distance between the enemy and Jaffa from three to eight miles, rendered Jaffa and its harbour secure, and gained elbow-room for the troops covering Ludd and Ramleh and the main Jaffa-Jerusalem road. (34)



10th March 1918

Arab forces is believed to be holding the Ridge running East from El Mezeirah with about 50 rifles and 2 Machine Guns, to have a post at Kh Dikerin of about 30 rifles and 2 Machine Guns, and about 120 Infantry, possibly 30 cavalry and about 4 Machine Guns at Mejdel Yaba with some scattered groups in between, the whole amounting to one Battalion (19th Regt.), about 250 rifles possibly 30 German Cavalry and 7-8 Machine Guns. So far as is known the only guns which can reach the above area are about three 77 mm. guns near Kefr Kasim, 2 or 3 long range 4.1 guns near Jiljuleih, and 2 small mobile pack guns usually about the Wadi Rabah. He has a few small posts further East, the chief one being at Deir Ballut where there are some 50 Cavalry and about one Battalion between Kefr Kasim and Mejdel Yaba.

March 11-12. 1918
On the left of the 75th Division the 54th Division captured the villages of El Mezeireh, Kh. Dikerin and Mejdel Yaba in the foothills, and Ras el Ain and El Mirr in the plain. Seven officers, 105 other ranks, and two machine guns were taken by these two divisions.

Sept 12. 1918
The 162nd and 163rd Brigades advanced the line further to a depth of four miles, capturing Mezeirah (l/5th Bedfords and 1/1 1th Londons) Kh. Dikerin (l/4th Northamptons), Mejdel Yaba (1/l0th Londons), and Ras el Ain (l/4th Norfolks).

1919
A member of Qassab family of Jaffa sold 6,000 dunems of Bir Adas lands, Abu Kishek sold 10,000 dunems of Ared al-Aujeh land, and Bitar Family sold 8,000 Dunems of Bnei-Brak, Rentieh, Shueireh, Kuleh, and Muzaarah to the Jewish Agency, (31 Page 224)

1920
A Jewish labor gang camped within the abandoned fortress while working on the nearby Petach Tikva railroad.

1922
Majdal Yaba was incorporated into British Mandate Palestine, 726 lived in Majdal Yaba. Tel Aviv was at the time experiencing a building boom, and much of the stone and gravel used for new construction came from Majdal Yaba quarry, on Arab land leased to Jewish entrepreneurs soon after the British occupation. The quarry workforce was entirely Arab, consisting of about thirty workers from Majdal Yaba itself and an additional 400 Arab workers from other villages.

1924
Solel Boneh, a Jewish company built a modern quarry in Majdal Yaba, The first working group comprised 11 men and women, all members of the Third Aliyah, members of the "Teitelbaum" or pioneer from Poland, The group came to the Majdal Yaba quarries and built two wooden sheds, one residential and one dining room (35) The workers hoped to establish a permanent workers' colony in the area, but after a year abandoned this dream (36)

1925
"The 23", a group of about 50 olim connected the the HeChalutz movement, came to work in the quarry. They built additional structures and made it into more of a real settlement. Things progressed until competition made the business unprofitable

1927
Due of economical hardships & recession Solel Boneh stopped paying salaries to this group, they asked company to offer them residence as a compensation but the company refused which prompted them to leave (46)

end of 1928
The last person of this group abandoned the quarry (36) (46)

1929
Shraga Kretchmer, Jacob Slonim, and Barlev (father of Haim Barlev) founded a quarry company, Society of Sadiq Lime Tower Plants and Gravel Ltd, with Lime & Stone Ltd (a subsidiary of Solel Boneh) (35) in collaboration with Mr. Taher Karman (Haifa vice Mayor) employing 120 persons in a 65 dunum land purchased from Majdal Yaba people. The group was able to purchased a whole lime factory from German company Kropp (46)

1930's
In the Mandatory period the city of Jerusalem expanded, and with it the need for water. to solve this problem, the British established a large modern water system that pumped the water of the Yarkon springs to Jerusalem

1930
Kamel Shanti ought to get the credit for Jewish settlement in the Sharon region: You could say that Shanti had a hand in purchasing the land for most of the settlements founded from 1930 onward . He was close to the Jews, and especially the Jews of Petah Tikva . . . from his youth, and afterward because his wife was Jewish (30) page 70

1931
966 lived in 227 houses in Majdal Yaba village

1932 a second Jewish quarry opened on land purchased from Majdal Yaba. At this time a 32 meter-tall quicklime furnace was built (36)

1934
In the fall of 1934 the Tel Aviv Workers' Council, which steadfastly insisted that the quarry workers were not Palestinians but Bedouins or Hawranis, negotiated an agreement with the quarry operators to introduce Jewish workers at the site and thereby supply Tel Aviv with what it termed Hebrew stone. Jewish workers in the building trades were called on to refuse to handle any stone produced by non-Jewish labor, as evidenced by the absence of a special seal. To implement the agreement, the operators were to build up a large inventory of stone and gravel and then, on the pretext that supply far exceeded demand, send the Arab workers back to their home villages, whereupon they would be replaced by Jews. The AWS in Jaffa got wind of the plan, however, possibly from Jewish communist sources, and warned the Arab workers, who remained at the site and for seventeen days withstood the Histadrut's efforts to introduce Jewish workers, until the quarry's managers agreed to retain all the Arabs employed there. (26) page 225

1935 CE
A Mosque was built in Majdal Yaba village

1936 CE
The northern part of the Tel was leased to the city of Jerusalem for construction of the Rās el-Ain Jerusalem waterworks,

1936 CE
There was renewed conflict at the Majdal Yaba quarry, where with the Histadrut's blessing management once again tried to fire all its Arab workers and replace them with Jews. With backing from the AWS, the Arab workers responded with picket lines. Even the MAPAI loyalists who sat on the Histadrut's Arab Committee seem to have been embarrassed by what was happening at Majdal Yaba. That the Histadrut secretariat had approved the wholesale dismissal of the Arab workers at Majdal Yaba without first consulting its own Arab Department, presumably responsible for coordinating the organization's policies toward Arab workers, was rightly taken as a sign of the low esteem in which the leadership held that department. Yaakov Riftin, the Hashomer Hatzair representative on the committee, denounced the indiscriminate firing of Arab workers and the drive for total Hebrew labor which motivated it. Though uneasy, his MAPAI colleagues contented themselves with a request that the Histadrut executive committee require that all Histadrut organs check with the Arab Department before dismissing Arab workers. As had been the case in 1934, the Arab workers' vigorous response frustrated the Histadrut offensive at this site (26) page 237

15 April 1936
Armed Arabs, apparently acolytes of Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam of Haifa, murdered two Jews on a road near Tulkarem. In response, members of Haganah Bet, a militant Jewish group that had broken from the Haganah, murdered two Arab workers near Petah Tikva. During the workers funeral, Arabs in Jaffa attacked Jews and murdered nine of them. So began the great Arab rebellion (30) page 95

May 1936
A livestock trader was apprehended near Petah Tikva as he tried to smuggle twenty head of cattle into a Jewish farming village (30) page 100

29 May 1936
One of the factories (Lime Furnace) was destroyed and the furnace was toppled (46)

Middle of July 1936
A bomb was thrown at Kamel Shanti in Jaffa. He was wounded by shrapnel. (30) page 109

August 1936
Begining of rising the quarry towers by Solel Boneh, paving the roads connecting Majdal Yaba quarry to Petah Tiqva (35)

End of 1936
At the end of 1936, at the Histadrut's insistence, all the Arab workers at Majdal Yaba were fired and Jewish workers brought in. As they had done twice before, the displaced Arab workers mounted a strong protest, but this time the British authorities stood squarely behind the Histadrut and a large contingent of police and numerous arrests broke Arab resistance. This defeat, which meant the loss of some 400 jobs, left a legacy of bitterness.

November 1936 T
he site was rebuilt and guarded by the Hagana (36)

January 13, 1937
Volunteers from Petah Tikva, Givatayim and Ramat Gan came to Majdal Yaba quarries with shotguns to guard it against Arab revolt. The place became a training camp under the command of Yitzhak Sadeh from using explosives to making land mines and grenades.

Oct 14 1937
Villagers from Majdal Yaba participated in the derailment of a train near Ras-el-Ain Station. The perpetrators came from villages which had had personal experience of what Zionists mean by the "conquest of labor" Yet the Histadrut's success at Majdal Yaba was only temporary: during the war Jewish workers left for better jobs elsewhere and by war's end the quarry workforce was again at least partially Arab, prompting yet another effort to impose Hebrew labor in 1947

May 1939 Death Squad lead by Faris Al-Azzouni, ambushed and killed 8 to 12 British officers near Ras El-Ain (58)
The quarry began to operate again, (39)

1941 Quarry was annexed to Majdal Yaba Quarry Plants "Limestone" of Solel Boneh (39)

1942
There was improvement in the work at Majdal Yaba Quarry caused by the work oof the military works department and the start of the building of Kraf Sirkin Airstrip & Tel Nouf (46)

1945
1,520 persons lived in Majdal Yaba village

1945
After the end of WWII and decline on the military works, tensions started again in Majdal Yaba quarries (46)

25 FEBRUARY 1946
On 25 Feb Irgun Z'vai Leumi attacked airplanes dispersed at R.A.F. airfields at Lydda, Petah Tiqva and Qastina. Seven aircrafts were destroyed and fifteen damaged by explosive charges placed on the wings and engines. This was acompetent attack, carried out in each case by one or two men who were supported by very strong covering parties. One Jew was killed and I.Z.L. have published the usual obituary notice.

14 MAY 1946
At approx 2210 hrs on 14 May in Petah Tiqva, 2 Jews armed with bren guns, automatics and grenades entered the "Bluebird Cafe". Speaking in English they told the customers, who included police and military, to keep their places, and not to move. Another armed Jew who was attempting to start a Jeep which was parked outside said in Hebrew "I can't start it" to which one of the hold-up men replied in the same language "If we can't have it neither will they, set it on fire." During the hold-up the voices of at least 8 more men were heard in the street. The Jeep was set alight and the men escaped. After they left soldiers extinguished the fire which did little damage. It is believed that the men escaped on foot

9/10 SEPTEMBER 1946
In the area of the 6 Airborne Division Training School at Petah Tiqva, a jeep encountered automatic fire near some mines in the roadway, and one sergeant was fatally wounded.

8 OCTOBER 1946
Mines were laid during the evening between Jaffa and Beit Dajam, where a civilian car was damaged and its Arab occupant injured. Between Petah Tiqva and Wilhelma and between Tel Aviv and Petah Tiqva, further mines were found. A British army patrol in the Nathanya area found some 7 road mines to the east of the Khirbst-Beit Lid crossroads. While removing these, the N.C.O. in charge of the patrol was injured.

17/18 OCTOBER 1946
Three sets of dummy mines, consisting of cardboard shoe-boxes linked with wire or string, were placed across the roads in the Divisional area at Shekhunat Ha Tiqva MR 13051620, at the Hulon junction at MR 1293 1607 and on the Main North Road south of Petah Tiqva at MR 14131623. On this occasion, unlike the last one, the strings of dummy mines did not also include one live mine.

30 OCTOBER 1946
At 2055 hours near Petah Tiqva truck destroyed by electrically detonated mine. Casualty 2 OR killed, 2 wounded.

31 OCTOBER 1946
The incident occurred at 2045 hours 31 October 1946 at MR 14121628 South of Petah Tiqva on the Main North Road (Red Route). The 15 cwt truck of 195 Para Field Ambulance was travelling southwards at speed when the explosion caused the driver to lose control. The truck travelled on 30 yards, turned round - and then turned over into the ditch on the same side of the road as the mines (West side). It caught fire and was completely burned out. Two men were trapped, Coiporal Voce and Pte Eyre, and both died. Two were thrown clear, Ptes White and Marcroft, escaping with shock and minor injuries.

The first vehicles to arrive at the scene of the incident were those of a patrol of 7 Para Bn, which came along half an hour later at 21 15 hours. A road patrol of 2 Para Bn arrived at 2120 hours.

The two injured men are now in 12th British General Hospital, recovering.

5 NOVEMBER 1946
At 2240 hours at Ras El Ain goods train blown up and fired on. Train not derailed but tankers destroyed by small arms fire. Diversionary fire directed at nearby police post. 2 oil tankers burnt out, part of track destroyed. No casualty.

10 NOVEMBER 1946
The demolition of Ras El Ein Station on the morning of the l0th, by four men with "suitcase" bombs followed quickly on the similar demolition of Jerusalem station. The bombs used at Ras El Ein were stated "to have been intended for Rome." It is a far cry from Rome to Ras El Ein, but the terrorists form part of a world-wide organization and their sabotage is no more confined by the frontiers of one country than are their ideals and their methods by the frontiers of human reason. Ras El Ein 14401680 at 1140 hours. Station demolished by "suitcase" bomb. 1 TAC died of wounds, 3 ORs injured. 4 Jews in blue pickup placed bombs in station-master's office at 1115 hours.

17 NOVEMBER 1946
Mine on railway line 2 kilometres south of Ras El Ain exploded while RE were attempting to move. I RE officer killed and 1 RE OR slightly injured.

19 NOVEMBER 1946
Ras El Ein 14391717 at 0930 hours. Pressure-type mine found on line. RE disposed at 1040.2 of line destroyed, 1 or 2 sleepers damaged.

30 NOVEMBER 1946
At 0730 hours a dummy mine was found on the railway line North of Ras El Bin at MR 14391712. It consisted of a circular iron case placed under the rail between two sleepers and covered with stones. 4 long cylindrical torch batteries, were in position around it. It was destroyed by RE without damage to the railway.

29/30 DECEMBER 1946
Near Petah Tiqva, a car tried to force a road-block. During an exchange of shots, the car was halted, one Jew was mortally wounded and four more were captured. In the car, as well as 2 TSMGs, 2 revolvers and four grenades, 2 rawhide whips were found.

1947
The school in Majdal Yaba had 147 students, there existed a mosque, a clinic, Majdal Yaba had a population of 1500 (47)

2 JANUARY 1947
Three attacks were made on vehicles of 6 Airborne Division, one near Hadera, when a mine exploded between two jeeps of 9 Airborne Squadron Royal Engineer, without damaging either. The second, North of Petah Tiqva, when a 3-ton lorry was mined and 5 soldiers injured. The third, South of Petah Tiqva, when a jeep was blown up injuring three.

3 JANUARY 1947
At 0435 hours on 3rd January two Military vehicles were blown up on the Haifa-Tel Aviv road, near Petah Tiqva. Six Military personnel were injured. At 0750 hours on the 3rd January a Military vehicle was blown up near Willhelma. Three British soldiers were injured.

13 JANUARY 1947
On 13 January, 1947 three Arabs, who had just appeared before the magistrates' court at Petah Tiqva for alleged assault on a Jewess, were waiting by the Petah Tiqva bus stop when a black covered-in truck drew up, and armed Jews abducted one of the three, who was shortly afterwards found nearby, castrated.

10 FEBRUARY 1947
On 10 February, three members of the Irgun were sentenced to death at a Military Court for their part in a fight at a road block on 29 December, 1946. During the night following the flogging of four members of HM Forces, a car carrying five Jews attempted to crash a road block near Petah Tiqva. In the gun battle which ensued, one of the Jews was fatally wounded and one soldier slightly wounded. The remaining four Jews were captured and a search of the car revealed a number of weapons and two rawhide whips. Although it was fairly clear that they had been involved in the flogging, they were charged with the illegal possession and use of arms.

1 MARCH 1947

At 1945 hours a land mine was detonated on the Haifa- Jaffa Road near Petah Tikva. No casualties or damage. At 2000 hours Water pumping station (Ras El Ain 143 168) fired on. No casualty. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.

9 March, 1947
When the Arab workers at Majdal Yaba Quarries went on strike in the late winter of 1947, their Jewish coworkers supported them in defiance of Histadrut directives that the strikers be replaced with Jews. Al-Ittihad , commented that ؟this is the Histadrut which claims at the WFTU congress that it strives for understanding between Arabs and Jews concerning their day-to-day demands.


13 MARCH 1947
At 2035 hours at a point 5 kilos north of Petah Tiqva an oil train was blown up by five contact mines. Nineteen oil tankers and wagons were damaged, as were engine and track. Train was fired on after explosion. No casualties. At 2115 hours, oil train ran over mine near Ras El Ain 14401689. Length of track torn up. 13 wagons damaged. 19 out of 23 trucks derailed. No casualty. Responsibility of Stern.

19 APRIL 1947
At 23.55 hours at Petah Tiqva a Police party signaled an approaching pickup to stop. The pickup drove on, fire was opened apparently without result, the pickup was pursued and was found abandoned on a sand track. It contained two complete and two partly finished land mines and a quantity of mine accessories. Its three occupants, one of whom is believed to have been a girl, escaped.

23 APRIL 1947
At 16.05 hours on 23rd April, two W.D. trucks were blown up on the Lydda-Petah Tiqva road and simultaneously fired on with automatic weapons. Four B.O.R.s were injured, one seriously. An unexploded mine was found nearby and dismantled. Three men were seen running from the scene and were fired on without result.

24 APRIL 1947
At 2010 hours 2 carriers of 3 Gren Guards mined at 14031718. Slight damage to vehicles. No casualty. On road Petah Tiqva Ra'Anana. At 20.40 hours on Haifa Jaffa road near Petah Tiqva a bren gun carrier exploded two small road mines, no casualties or damage

20 MAY 1947
At 20.15 hours on 20th May at Fajjeh near Petah Tiqva a number of armed Jews entered an Arab cafe and searched the occupants. On leaving they placed a mine in the building and fired a number of shots killing one Arab, seriously wounding three other Arabs and slightly wounding four Arabs. The mine was later detonated by Military completely wrecking the cafe. At 2100 hours on 20th May about 25 armed Jews entered Arab Serwarkeh Encampment near Petah Tiqva and opened fire on the inhabitants killing one Arab. A land mine was later found in the village.

13 JULY 1947
On the evening of 13th July, lorry carrying explosives under escort of British Constable was forced to stop near Petah Tiqvah by another lorry obstructing it. Ten armed Jews surrounded the lorry and shot the British Constable dead. They then placed the driver, who was a Jew, in the back of the lorry and drove off. Driver was subsequently released and reported to the Police. Investigations proceeding.

16/17 JULY 1947
At 17.50 hours an electrically detonated mine exploded on the Petah Tiqva-Lydda Road, damaging two military trucks carrying personnel. One B.O.R. killed one B.O.R. seriously injured and two B.O.R.s slightly injured. Four Jewish suspects arrested. At 18.05 hours an electrically detonated mine exploded on the Haifa-Tel Aviv road north of Petah Tiqva. A passing jeep was damaged and four of its occupants, one British Officer and three B.0.R.s were injured. FO 371/61 776

7 AUGUST 1947
At 07.55 hrs. a mine on the Haifa-Kantara line between Ras El Ain and Qalqilya exploded beneath a goods train. 19 oil wagons were derailed and track was damaged. No serious casualties.


13 AUGUST 1947
At 16.30 hours on 13th August a car containing two Jews deposited on a road near Petah Tiqva the body of an Arab as yet unidentified, possible Egyptian, who had been shot.

15 AUGUST 1947
01 -20 hours on 15th August a party of 30-35 Jews in khaki shirts and shorts and armed with automatic weapons approached an Arab owned building in an orange grove near Petah Tiqvah. 16 Arabs were sleeping in and around the building. As the Jews approached, they split up, several entering the building, and all firing indiscriminately. The Arabs scattered, but four (2 Egyptians, 1 Palestinian and 1 Hejazi) were shot dead. At 01.47 hours the building was almost completely demolished by an explosion, probably electrically detonated. 3 males and 4 females are believed to be buried in the debris.

6 OCTOBER 1947
On 6 October, a party of Jews attacked an Arab encampment near Petah Tiqva, killing two and wounding four others. It is believed that the attack was in the nature of a reprisal for the murder of two Jews in the same area on 4 October.

29 November 1947 Partition Plan ratified by UN

15 DECEMBER 1947
1230 hours, Arab bus fired on passing through Ras El Ain 143 167. 1 killed and 7 injured.

1948
The total number of Majdal Yaba occupants is estimated at 1,763

1 JANUARY 1948
1130 hours, Petah Tiqva. In Stanter Street, Arabs returning to their homes with their monthly issue of flour and sugar from the Petah Tiqva Municipality were stopped by Jews who emptied some of the sacks on to the ground. The Arabs themselves were not attacked.

2 JANUARY 1948
Police cars fired on Lydda-Petah Tiqva road. Area cordoned. 2 armed Jewish watchmen found. Casualties - 1 British Constable seriously injured, 1 Arab killed and 4 wounded.

20 January 1948
Survival Army entered Palestine from Daraa through Jordan River to Bisan.

10 FEBRUARY 1948
1700 hours, Petah Tiqvah. A party of twelve Arabs from Et Tira village (Tulkarm Sub-District) returning in a truck from selling cattle in the Petah Tiqvah area, were stopped by a large number of Jews in a truck near 120 M.U. Royal Air Force Camp, Ras El Ein. The Arabs were made to alight from their vehicle and were taken into the nearby orange grove of Abu Lebban from which firing was subsequently heard. Jews were then seen to leave the grove and enter the truck which was driven away

12 FEBRUARY 1948
Lydda. 0845 hours, Petah Tiqvah. At the Haifa/Lydda crossroads, Yousef Karpin of Haifa, driver of Shell Petrol tanker No. M9235, male 'International', was held up by a party of armed Jews who stole the vehicle and detained Karpin in a nearby orange grove until 1730 hours when he was released and reported the robbery to the police. The tanker contained 1,500 gallons of petrol.

13 FEBRUARY 1948
1000 hours, Petah Tiqvah. Acting on information received, a police party proceeded to Fajja Village where it is alleged that on the Lydda maifa road, armed Jews travelling in a small car had fired on a passing Arab truck, killing the driver and one of the passengers and injuring another. The incident is subject to confirmation as the villagers could not give the names or whereabouts of the casualties. The only information that could be ascertained was that the Arab truck was from the Tulkarm area.

13 FEBRUARY 1948
1100 hours, Ramle. The following casualties resulted when a party of three Arabs were fired on by two persons, allegedly Jewish Settlement Police, from an unknown civilian truck at kilo 55 on the Lydda Petah Tiqva road

25 FEBRUARY 1948
1200 hours, 2 Royal Air Force 3-ton vehicles fired on from orange grove on road Lydda-Petah Tiqva, 141 1 1653. Military patrol arrived and fired on 3-ton vehicle leaving scene of incident. Vehicle crashed, occupants 2 Jews, carrying Stens and grenades, claimed to be Haganah. 2 Jews wounded.

25 FEBRUARY 1948
1230 hours, Petah Tiqva. Near Ein Ganim on the Lydda Petah Tiqva road, a number of shots were fired from an orange grove on the outskirts of the colony at two passing Royal Air Force trucks. The vehicles ran off the road. One of the Royal Air Force personnel was slightly wounded. Military arrived on the scene immediately after the shooting and, on entering the grove, are alleged to have fired on Jews who were working there. One Jew is reported to have been slightly injured and removed to the Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tiqva. Two other Jews, Asher Reznik and Zion Hindin were arrested. The following arms were confiscated by the military: 3 Sten guns, 6 Sten gun magazines, 6 grenades (unprimed), 6 detonators, 1 Mauser pistol and 9 rounds of ammunition.

25 FEBRUARY 1948
Royal Air Force trucks fired on between Lydda and Petah Tiqva (1415). 1 A.C. wounded. Military patrol arrived and arrested military-type vehicle, inside which were two Hagana men.

27 FEBRUARY 1948
1525 hours, Tel Aviv. N.A.A.F.I. Dodge 15-cwt truck No. M.E.T. 656 was stolen from Petah Tiqvah Road, Tel Aviv. The driver was ordered out of the vehicle, and the armed Jews drove off in the truck in the direction of Petah Tiqvah. The vehicle, which was loaded with four oxygen cylinders and is coloured grey, bears the following additional identification marks: letters N.A.A.F.I.B.F.1 and a second No. E.F.I. 000 1999.

March 1948
According to information received by the intelligence officer of Hasan Salameh in Jaffa, the long-standing collaborator Ali al-Qasem, together with Tawfiq Abu-Kishek and several of his brothers, spread horror stories about the Jews' strength and their belligerent intentions such accounts had convinced the Arabs of Sheikh Muwnnis to abandon their homes, just before the grain in their fields ripened. (30) page 245

12 March 1948
The Arabs of Fajja and ؟Arab al-Quz, who dwelt east of Petach Tikva, made a pact with Kfar Sirkin (30) page 233 . Mukhtar of Fajja, who while proposing an alliance with the Jewish village of Kfar Sirkin reported on the activities of combatants from his village. Sheikh Tawfiq Abu-Kishek did much the same; when asked by Arab forces to provide information that would allow them to sabotage one of the bridges over the Yarkon River, he refused and made sure that news of the plan reached the Shai. (30) page 239

14 MARCH 1948
Petah Tikva. On the Jaffa Haifa road near Lydda Junction Station No. 2239, F.P.C. Masarak Ta'atur Kakour, of Ra'nana Police Station, was held up by a party of armed Jews. He was taken to a nearby orange grove and robbed of the following: LP. 55, 1 Police tunic (blue, with numerals), Certificate of Appointment, 1 Kalpak, tool box containing farrier's kit. He was held for approximately five minutes, after which the Jews made off in a truck, the number of which is not known.

16 MARCH 1948
1230 hours, Petah Tikva. At kilo 79 on the Haifa Tel Aviv road, P.W.D. truck No. M 109 S, driven by Eliahu Hayoun, of Tel Aviv, was held up by four unarmed Jews, who ordered the driver out of the vehicle and drove off in it. The truck is a 15 cwt green Morris Commercial.

18 MARCH 1948
2345 hours, Ramle. Whilst riding motor-cycle and side-car No. M638M, the property of the P.W.D., in Ra'anana, Benjamin Zozian of Tel Aviv was held up by five armed Jews who ordered him to dismount. He did so and one of the Jews rode off on the machine towards Petah Tiqva. The remaining Jews followed in a tender.

27 MARCH 1948
1630 hours, Petah Tiqva. Captain Hall and Captain Hartley, of 12th Anti-Tank Regiment R.A., were held up by armed Jews whilst travelling in a "White" scout car at the level crossroads near Benyamina. They were forced to get into a waiting car and were driven to a house where they were kept the night. They were released at 1100 hours 28 March, 1948, but the vehicle in which they were travelling and their personal weapons were stolen.

31 MARCH 1948
At 2100 hours, a Hudson private car, owned by David Lubinsky, with Vehicle number M633A was stolen at Petah Tiqva Road, Tel Aviv, by five armed Jews.

7 APRIL 1948
1730 hours, Petah Tiqva. On Biyar 'Adas lands, Ra'anana P.S. area, armed Jews shot and killed Abu Mahmoud Tilawi (60) of Qalqiliya and then stole the animal which he was using for ploughing

8 April 1948
Haganah Intilligence Service-Arab Department reported the start of evacuation of women and children from Majdal Yaba for fear of Haganah assault (Summary of Information for Alexandroni Brigade (11.5.48) No. 8, IDFA


April 9th, 1948
Early in the morning of Friday, April 9, 1948, commandos of the Irgun, headed by Menachem Begin, and the Stern Gang attacked Deir Yassin, By noon over 100 people, half of them women and children, had been systematically murdered

11/12 MAY 1948
During the night of 11/12 May, the Jews attacked Antipatris (Tel Ras El Ain). Jewish snipers were active during the morning of the 12th May.

12 MAY 1948 Jews occupy Antipatris (Tel Ras El Ain).

(Israeli Era)

14 May 1948
Ben Gurion announced the creation of the state of Israel

15 May 1948
End of British mandate on Palestine

30 May 1948
Jews attacked Ras El Ain, and took positions for one night

31 May 1948
Arabs under famous Palestinian leader Hasan Salameh of Qula, commander of Mid West section, clash in Ras El Ain with jews till jews withdrew forces

31 May 1948
Hasan Salameh injured with a sharp nail in his left lung at Majdal Yaba School

01 June 1948
Arrival of Iraqi Army to Ras El Ain commanded by Ghaleb Aziz, commander of a frigate of the 1st battalion of the First Brigade

01 June 1948
Hasan Salameh died of his injuries

13 June 1948
Ras El Ain train station and Tel Ras El Ain liberated

11 June 1948
First ceasefire between Arab Armies and Jewish Groups announced

10 July 1948
Nearby Qula village, birthplace of Hasan Salameh, was attacked by Alexandroni Brigades, a massacre done by Jewish troops against the town's inhabitants. A few old people who were unable to walk stayed behind. A few days later, when people came back to look for them, they found their burned bodies.

11 July 1948
Jews occupy Lydd

12 July 1948
Jews occupy Ramla

12 July 1948
Jews occupy the nearby al-Muzayri'a village, and started getting closer to Majdal Yaba village, Old people, women and children at Majdal Yaba village started fleeing the village fearing for their lives to the nearby Marj El Hommos north east of the village, people living south and south east of the village noticed movements around that area and sent three persons to check on what is happening, however those went thier failed to come back to village that night

13 July 1948
Iraqi Army withdrew from it's positions in Ras El Ain, and took off a mortar launching canon from Majdal Yaba village

13 July 1948
At 10:00 PM, Alexandroni Brigade attacked Majdal Yaba from the south eastern side with Stens and grenades, local fighters and two Iraqi soldiers were at western and northern sides of the village, they were forced to retriet to the north towards Kufr Qassim and the jews occupied the village killing three civilians, two brothers living at a hill south east of the village Ali and Abdul Fattah Abdullah Al-Abidi, and a third one Husein Asaad Al-Rayyan at the village itself near Al-Rayan fortress. Two brothers where killed also trying to sneak back to the village to get what they can from their belongings, Hasan and Omar sons of Shiekh Mohammad Damra. Remaining civilians who didn't leave the village earlier started running out of the village leaving behind elders like Shiekh Al-Rafati, Shiekh Izzat Mahmoud Saleh, Shiekh Ismael Al-Ibrahim and a baby still in his cradle Naif Mohammad Abdullah Al-Sela. Amneh El Baker snoke back to the village and picked Naif,

14 July 1948
Iraqi artilary shelled the village and Majdal Yaba local fighters went back closer to the north eastern side of the village near the cemetery, they asked areal support from the Iraqi air force, however the Iraqi air force attacked the fighters instead of attacking the Jews.

20 August 1948
Abdul Karim Qassim, commander of the 1st battalion of the First Brigade of the Iraqi Army to Palestine, arrived to Kufr Qassim

21 August 1948
Under the command of Abdul Karim Qassim the 1st battalion of the 1st Brigade Liberated Ras El Ain & the hills south of Kufr Qassim

27/28 August 1948
Jews attack Kufr Qassim

28 August 1948
Abdul Karim Qassim forces liberated Kufr Qassim again

28 August 1948
Abdul Karim Qassim sent a telegraph to Iraqi command that he can easily liberate Majdal Yaba, but received orders not to do so

30 August 1948
Abdul Karim Qassim was ordered to return to Howwarah

2-3 Sept 1948
Abdul Karim Qassim left Kufr Qassim

10 Oct 1948
Abdul Karim Qassim was ordered again to return to Kufr Qassim

1949-50
A group of Yemenite Jews who arrived in Israel as part of "Operation Magic Carpet" were settled in the old British camp while the nearby town of Rosh Ha-'Ayin was being built

end of 1949, 21 Quarries and 22 shredders and lime klins were built and operated. Number of workers reached a peak of 700, including 70 workers from Kfar Kassem. Labor Council of Petah Tikva even set quarrying courses for new immigrants near the quarries. (39)

1949 to 1951 were the peak years of producing stone. (39)

1952 The volume of construction in the country reduced, and operations decreased. The pioneers desire in establishing the Hebrew village Hozvim and farmers was not enacted as planned before

1955
The Ras El Ain springs were connected to the National Water Carrier؟s Yakon-Negev line

1970s and 1980s
Surveys of the Lod and Rosh Ha-‘Ayin maps were conducted; these provided an extensive picture of the region(52)(53)

1981

Extensive studies of the farms in western Samaria were conducted; 25 farms were discovered in a survey of the region between Nahal Qana in the north and Nahal Natuf in the south(54)

1990s
Studies and excavations were published about Mazor (55)

In January 1991, during the Gulf War, Majdal Yaba served as an observation tower for the Intelligence Corps to identify and alert about the missiles which fell on Gush Dan and the Sharon. (39)

1991 to 2005

After 50 years of using the place as a backyard of the region, piles of stones, trash and weeds cover much of the remnants of the village. Ruins quarries and lime kilns have been neglected. Piracy landfills "garbage state". Remains of the terraces, fruit trees and cactus plants are mute testimony to vibrant life that were here before. Dust coming from the stone quarries near Nahshonim polluted the environmental air. The citadel structure started crumbling, hill full of thorns and gravel. (39)

1994
Majdal Yaba was partially converted into a National Park (46)

2004
Majdal Yaba timeline research started by the writer

2005
Rosh Ha Ayn Mayor Moshe Sinai signed an agreement between the municipality and the Nature and Parks Authority for the joint management of Majdal Sadeq National Park converting it to walking trails, cafe, Country Club, theater and a recycling area.

6th July 2008
Construction going on at Majdal Yaba National Park

August to November 2011, a salvage excavation was conducted in extensive areas of the Migdal Afeq antiquities site (49)

23 July 2012
Israeli authorities exhumed graves in Majdal Yaba to allow for the construction of a new road and residential areas (38)

===============================

Sources:

1- http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/b-hebrew/2009-February/037277.html

2- http://en.wikipedia.org

3- http://www.palestine-encyclopedia.com/

4- http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=25359

5- Ibn Tulun القلائد الجوهرية في تاريخ الصالحية http://www.thaqafa.org/Main/default.aspx?_ContentType=ART&_ContentID=6b9de6a9-4f46-4c60-9123-9d5e276d42aa

5a- http://www.attarikh-alarabi.ma/Html/adad11partie7.htm#_ftn51
5b- Usāmah ibn Munqidh memories in Palestine http://www.1eman.com/vb/archive/index.php/t-11196.html
5c- Oun al-Rawdatin fe Akhbar Addawalatin Al-Nouriyah wa Al-Salahiyah

6- http://www.rosh-haayin.muni.il/article_page.asp?id=2538&scid=358

7- http://amoo2005.jeeran.com/archive/2008/7/612990.html

8- Yaqut al-Hamawi

9- Encyclopedia of the Bible

10- Later Biblical Researches in Palestine, and in the Adjacent Regions. A Journal of Travels in the Year 1952, by Eli Smith and Edward Robinson

11- A brief record of the advance of the Egyptian expeditionary force under the command of General Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby . July 1917 to Oct. 1918

(12) Palestine under the Moslems: a description of Syria and Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. TRANSLATED FROM THE WORKS OF THE MEDIEVAL ARAB GEOGRAPHERS BY GUY LE STRANGE.

13- History of Palestine, 634-1099, Moshe Gil‏

14- Memoir to accompany the map of the Holy Land By Carel Willem Meredith van de Velde

15- Notices of modern Samaritans: illustrated by incidents in life of Yaʻḳūb (al-Shalabī) page 27


16- Guns in the Desert: General Jean-Pierre Doguereau's Journal of Napoleon's Egyptian Expedition Pages 69 to 76



17- النكبة الفلسطينية والفردوس المفقود للأستاذ عارف العارف - المجلد الثالث صفحة 519


18- تاريخ جبل نابلس لاحسان النمر ج 1 ص 131

19- فلسطين في العهدين الأيوبي والمملوكي - خليل عثامنة - الطبعة الأولى ص 137-151

20 -تاريخ حرب فلسطين، اللواء الركن خليل سعيد ص. 117،

الموسوعة، خليل إبراهيم حسين، ج.6 . ص. 71-72(21)
(22) http://www.davidrumsey.com
(23)Terror Out of Zion: The Fight for Israeli Independence By J. Bowyer Bell, Pages 181, 182, 183

(24)Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus, 1700-1900

(25)The survey of western Palestine: A general index to 1. The memoirs, vols. I

(26)Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. Lockman, Zachary. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1996 1996

(27) Byeways in Palestine, James Finn,
(28) Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement For 1877. Vol. 9 and 10
(29)Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte, Volum 1 Av Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne
(30) Army of Shadow, Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917-1948, Hillel Cohen
(31) The Land Question in Palestine, 1917-1939, Kenneth W. Stein
(32) http://www.soniclight.com/constable/notes/pdf/1samuel.pdf
(33) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinai_and_Palestine_Campaign#Arab_Revolt
(34) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/52nd_(Lowland)_Division
(35) http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%97%D7%A6%D7%91%D7%95%D7%AA_%D7%9E%D7%92%D7%93%D7%9C_%D7%A6%D7%93%D7%A7
(36) http://rhruins.blogspot.com/2010/11/migdal-zedeks-inactive-quarries.html
(37) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaffa%E2%80%93Jerusalem_railway
(38) http://pls48.net/?mod=articles&ID=1147475
(39) http://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=846844
(40) The conquest of Arsuf by Baybers, REUVEN AMITAI http://mamluk.uchicago.edu/MSR_IX-1_2005-Amitai_13MB.pdf
(41) http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%91%D7%A6%D7%9C%D7%90%D7%9C_%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%94
(42) http://www.heritagedaily.com/2014/12/impressive-2800-year-old-farm-house-discovered-rosh-ha-ayin/106065
(43) http://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.premium-1.631879
(44) Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem , Conder
(45) The Notables of Palestine at the End of the Ottoman Period, 1800-1918 (1995) , Adel Manna http://www.howiyya.com/Portal/Article.aspx?id=1625
(46) Dr. Avi Sasson, Israel Lands section, Ascelan University
(47) Halabi family lineage http://www.beitreema.com/rimawi_andalalbait.htm
(48) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1341973/Did-humans-come-Middle-East-Africa-Scientists-forced-write-evolution-modern-man.html
(49) http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=5448
(50) Guérin V. 1982. Description géographique, historique et archéologique de la Palestine. Volumes4 and 5 (Hebrew translation of the French edition from 1868 by Haim Ben Amram). Jerusalem.
(51) Conder C.R. and Kitchener H.H. 1882. The Survey of Western Palestine II: Samaria. London.
(52) Gophna R. and Beit-Arieh I. 1997. Map of Lod (80) (Archaeological Survey of Israel). Jerusalem.
(52) Kochavi M. and Beit-Arieh I. 1994. Map of Rosh Ha-‘Ayin (78) (Archaeological Survey of Israel). Jerusalem.
(54) Finkelstein I. 1981. Israelite and Hellenistic Farms in the Foothills and in the Yarkon Basin. Eretz Israel 15:331–348 (Hebrew; English summary, p.86*).
(55) Zilberbod I. and Amit D. 2002. Mazor (El‘ad). HA-ESI 113:46*–51*.
(56) The Settlement Distribution in the Samarian Foothills in the Byzantine Period. M.A. thesis. Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Hebrew).
(57) Excavations and Surveys at Horbat Anusha and Horbat Leved in the Samarian Shephelah, Ofer Sion, Uzi 'Ad, Mordechai Haiman and Giora Parnos
'Atiqot /עתיקות כרך‎ 55 (התשס"ז/ 2007), pp. 62-64
(58) https://ency.najah.edu/node/115


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Posted by Khaled El Sala on March 2, 2010 #105254

Continued -- 2/2

Dr. Yigal, I do really admire your scholarly approach in your researches, and the way you are able to link historical things together to make it more understandable, however it alarms me to know that upto now some israeli scholars like yourself still think that my grandfather would ever leave his home without a reason to be terrified, or ever try to justify the ethnic cleansing of our village, it's occupation, the demolition of our house, and the killing of our civilian unarmed relatives who we know them by name. If you are interested to know happenings occured the last few days before they left Majdal Yaba (thinking it would be for few days) listen to part 6 of our relative's verbal account at the website:

www . palestineremembered . com /al-Ramla/Majdal-Yaba/Story1742.html

It realy amazed me how some scholars like yourself would think even those palestinians who settled in western democracys would ever loose their rights of ownership to lands registed under thier names in Ottoman and British civil registries, which they used to pay its taxes for ages

Maybe international conditions are to Israel's favour those days, and against international law. But Dr. Yigal this won't continue forever and things would change.


Khaled
Posted by Khaled El Sala on March 2, 2010 #105253

Dear Yigal,

Thanks again for your comments, it was very helpful for me to update my hometown Time Line. I have completed some missing points at the roman period, and made further research and found out that the gap is slowly closing.

After the earth quake of 363 CE Antipatris was not totaly abonded, Jerome wrote it was half-ruined, Polychronius was it's bishop around 449 to 451 CE, Abdullah Ben Ali marched to Abu Futrus April 27th, 750 CE, and he invited 80 Umaiyids to Abu-Futrus then killed them all on Jun 25th that same year. Crusades started 1095 CE, and they built Mirabel on 1150

As for your comments on Majdal Sadiq as being distroyed on 67 CE, you article below doesn't clearly indicate that. Infact on 60 CE The Apostle Paul spent a night in Antipatris while being taken from Jerusalem to Caesarea, I believe Antipatris is the city which had been distroyed during the First Jewish-Roman war.

I am really here not trying to argue who came first. I believe my ancestors are a mixture of all the people who occupied the area. Egyptian, Philistians, Jewish, Roman, Mongolian and Arab. It's in our genes even.

As for the Solel Boneh being jewish, I assumed from the owners' names people would know it, however, I added this identity, and added the following few lines from a book named : Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. Lockman, Zachary. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1996 1996

My father's Ancestors came from Deir Ghassaneh, my mother's ancestors came from nearby Rantis, I have a list of all the major families in Majdal Yaba village, all of them came from Palestine itself and none from neighboring countries. How about your ancestors Dr. Yigal, where did they came from?

Entries from Feb. 1946 to 1948 gives an idea of happenings going in and around Majdal Yaba, and hence the state of mind of people living in Majdal Yaba village at that time. I filtered out the areas which are far away. If some of it doesn't even deal with the area in and around Majdal Yaba, it was only copied so the story won't go out of context, please remember that Majdal Yaba was the working place for more than 1500 from all over Palestine, some where working at the quarries, some at Ras El Ain Rail Station, others at the British camp nearby, news of those attacks had terrorised everybody at the village.

(edited) 20 August 1948 Abdul Karim Qassim, commander of the 1st battalion of the First Brigade of the Iraqi Army to Palestine, arrived to Kufr Qassim

1/2 -- cont
Posted by Khaled El Sala on March 2, 2010 #105250

continue -- 2/2

You also don’t mention that it was the Iraqis who made the local population leave the village, and that when the village was captured by the Israelis, there were practically no civilians there. Any "ethnic cleansing" done at the site was not done by the Israelis.



While I obviously cannot argue against your personal perspective of the 1947-1949 "nakba", presenting a one-sided and often simply wrong picture is not helpful in anything except perpetuating animosity and conflict. The fact is, that had the inhabitants of Majdal Yaba stayed as did the inhabitants of Kafr Qassim, Jaljulyeh, Kafr Bara, Taybeh, et-Tirah and other villages in the area, their descendants would have now been citizens of the state of Israel with equal rights and with representation in the Israeli parliament. In 1948-1950 Israel took in more Jewish refugees, from Europe and from the Arab countries, than the number of Palestinians who left. While again, I have no idea who you are and what your undoubtedly difficult life story has been, in general the only reason that so many Palestinians remained refugees for so long is that their Arab "brothers" and their own leadership refused to allow them to settle as citizens in other countries, perpetuating suffering and hatred and insuring that so many be willing to continue the armed struggle against an Israel that they refused to accept as legitimate in any case.





With wishes of peace,



Yigal

===========
Dr Yigal Levin
Lectures on the history, archaeology and historical geography at the College of Judea and Samaria in Ariel
Bar-Ilan University, Israel.
Dept. of Philosophy and Religion,
Department of Land of Israel Studies at Bar-Ilan University Jordan Valley Academic College
Ariel University Center of Samaria
Director of the education program of the Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
615 McCallie Avenue
Chattanooga TN 37403-2598
U.S.A.
================================
Posted by Khaled El Sala on March 2, 2010 #105249

Comment of A Jewish Scholar as received by e-mail :


Dear Mr. Essale,



Thank you for your email. I appreciate your comment on my post, and hope that you will accept my comments in the same spirit. Of course I have no argument with your material on early Aphek, except that the material on Roman-period Antipatris is incomplete. Below I have copied the text of an entry that I wrote for the same Encyclopedia of the Bible and its Reception on Antipatris, which you may find useful.



However, I do find many aspects of your entry misleading. You do not clarify, that Aphek/Antipatris/Ras el-Ein and Majdal Yaba/Majdal Sadeq are NOT the same place – you simply cite the history of Aphek and then suddenly shift to Majdal Yaba, as if there is a continuum between them. There is not. After the earthquake of 363 the site of Aphek/Antipatris was abandoned until the Banar-Bashi/Ras el-Ein fortress was built by the Turks in 1571. The site of Majdal Yaba was known during the Roman period as "The Tower of Aphek" and was a Jewish town until its destruction in 67 CE. Again the site was practically abandoned until the Crusader fortress of Mirabel was built in the 12th century. The village itself was only founded in the 16th century.



So much for ancient history. As you write, the village was largely abandoned until the mid 19th century. It would be interesting to know where the modern villagers (your own ancestors?) arrived from, but this was the trend all over 19th and early 20th century Palestine – migrants from neighboring countries being attracted by the improving economic conditions, due to western influence and Jewish immigration.



You correctly state that the modern quarry was built by Solel-Boneh. You do not mention that this was a Jewish company that until the revolt of 1936 employed most of the people of the village. Your entry for January 13th 1937 looks like the "volunteers" came to force the villagers to keep working at gunpoint. This is not true. The villagers who had been employed at the quarry attacked their former place of work because it was Jewish-owned, and the "volunteers" came do defend it and the Jewish workers who replaced them from the armed villagers.



Most of the information in your entries for February 1946 through May 1948 has nothing to do with Majdal Yaba. Some of it does not even deal with the Petah Tiqvah area. I won’t even get into its accuracy, but it is certainly part of a very one-sided view of the 1947-1949 war. When you finally do return to events at Majdal Yaba, you do not mention that Abdul Karim Qassim was an Iraqi officer (who later led the revolt against the King of Iraq) and that the Israeli capture of the village was prompted by the shelling of Petah Tiqvah by those Iraqi troops.