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The Nakba - an event that did not occur (although it had to occur)
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Posted by Nakba In Hebrew on December 14, 2005

By Eitan Bronstein, 2004

Palestinian women and children leaving their homes during Nakba. Note the absence of men, most likely they were sent to labor or concentration camps

In March 2004 a memorial event was held near the 'Cinema City' ( Hertzeliya) for the Palestinian village of Ijlil which had existed at the site until 1948. Its inhabitants fled upon hearing of massacres committed against Palestinians by Zionist forces in the area. A detailed report about the village, its uprooting and the fate of its refugees, was published in the local paper 'Sharon Times' on the occasion of the memorial. One week later the same paper published a letter to the editor written by a reader who was outraged at the paper for "providing a stage (...) to some Arabs who claim to have once lived on the site of the recently constructed, magnificent Cinema City." An educator working in Natanya was surprised to hear from high school students that, "before the Jews there were the British in the country." These are two rather incidental examples for the denial of the Palestinian Nakba by Jews in Israel. While it would certainly be possible to find even stronger examples, there appears to be no need for proof of the argument that the Jewish public in Israel denies the occurrence of the Nakba. The Nakba denial is found in the geography and the history taught in schools, on the maps of the country and in the signs marking places on its surface. All of them ignore almost completely the event which made possible the establishment of the Jewish State as a state with a Jewish majority and a Palestinian minority, after the majority of the indigenous people of the country were evicted, their properties destroyed and/or confiscated for the benefit of the new state.

How can we understand this denial of the Nakba?

Can it be explained in psychological terms as the denial of an event that cannot be comfortably accepted?
Could we also say that recognition of the suffering inflicted on the Palestinians would 'remove' Jews in Israel from the status of the ultimate victim which justifies almost each evil action?
Or maybe the denial is a result of plain ignorance?

There may be various correct explanations for this phenomenon. This article will try to shed light on one aspect of the discourse about the Nakba in Israel (before and after its establishment). It will show that the Nakba represents for the Zionist subject an event that cannot possible have occurred and - at the same time - had to occur. From early on, Zionism ignored the existence of the Arab inhabitants of Palestine. It is, therefore, not possible that some 800,000 persons were ethnically cleansed from the country and that more than 500 Palestinian villages were destroyed. On the other hand, the expulsion of the Palestinian majority from their country was inevitable for Zionism that aimed to establish a Jewish State, i.e. a national home for the Jewish people in the world on a territory ruled by a Jewish majority on the basis of law.

The Nakba - an event that did not occur!

Zionist identity was built from the beginning on a two-fold negation: it negates time and space of the Jews outside Zion, a 'negation of exile' which extends beyond the realm of religion, and it negates time and space of those indigenous to the territory of Zion. The latter is best defined by the well-known statement of Zionist leader Israel Zangvil about, "a people without land returning to a land without people." Attitudes of the leaders and architects of Zionism towards the indigenous inhabitants of 'Zion' were situated between their perception as (temporary) guards or holders of the land on one end, and their absolute non-existence as a relevant factor on the other extreme. In this aspect, Zionism resembles other colonialist projects. Edward Said writes in his book 'Orientalism,' that for the Orientalist there is "no trace of Arab individuals with personal histories that can be told (...) The Arab does not create existential depth, not even in semantics" (...) The oriental person is oriental first, and human second." According to the approach of Zionism, a typical orientalist movement, indigenous Arabs of the country exist and live in it, but they are of no importance in the sense of deserving a relationship similar to that shown to 'European humans.' They certainly do not constitute a people or a collective able or interested in realizing itself as such, or similar to the Jewish national collective.

If Palestinians do not 'really' exist, as opposed to the 'reality' of Zionist existence, then also their expulsion cannot occur. It is not possible to expel somebody who is not present. According to Zionism, the violent events around 1948 did in fact occur, but only in form of an unavoidable response to the disturbance caused by the 'locals,' who did not accept the establishment of the new entity, the Jewish State. Therefore, what is important to understand, teach and tell about this period is the story of 'liberation' and 'independence' of the Jewish people in its homeland. According to this approach there was certainly no Nakba or tragedy for any other, because the other had never really existed in the land. Hundreds of villages in the costal areas, in the south and in the center were not expelled; rather 'territorial continuity' was created according to the Haganah's Plan Dalet. The space is thus 'naturally' Jewish. It must only be realized and transferred to Zionist control. Jewish territorial continuity and Jewish demographic homogeneity in Palestine represent the core of the Zionist project. Therefore, the Zionist subject cannot understand or see the catastrophe inherent in this project, especially since what is involved is the historical realization of an idea that derives its relevance from the Bible and a modern nationalism turned into a religion in many aspects. The Zionist subject cannot see the Nakba or seriously debate its circumstances. It must strip off its inner essence, in order to start to see it as an event that has shaped the space in which Zionism realized itself.

Ever since 1948 the Nakba is dismissed, and must be dismissed, from the consciousness of the Zionist subject, because its existence challenges the basis on which it was built - a people without land for a land without people. Recognition of the Palestinian Nakba signifies the destruction of the ground underneath the feet of this subject which understands itself as autonomous, or as a closed unit [MONADA]. Therefore, any such recognition, or even the attempt to look at this tragedy as something that happened to somebody else here, is outrageous and almost incomprehensible. It is possible to recognize that some massacres happened here and there, as a result of local battles and fighting; it is possible to recognize that all Arab armies tried to destroy us, the subject that wished to form itself. It is impossible, however, to look at the Nakba as a catastrophe committed by this subject in order to form itself, or as a necessary process for the Zionist subject.

The Nakba - an event that had to occur

On the other hand, and paradoxically, the Nakba - the violent expulsion of the inhabitants of the country and the transformation those remaining into refugees in their homeland, or into incomplete citizens - is a necessary event, because it brought about the realization of the ethnically pure, closed and autonomous Zionist subject which builds itself in the framework of a state aimed exclusively for him/her. Without the Nakba, the Zionist subject might have become contaminated intellectually by foreign ideas and practices, such as bi-nationalism, or even physically from living in a space over which s/he does not exert exclusive and absolute control. Benny Morris, for example, describes eloquently how the idea of transfer was found strongly in the heads and writings of Zionist leaders back in the early decades of the 20th century, based on the profound understanding that the establishment and existence of the Jewish state will require the eviction of the native inhabitants of Eretz Isra'el.

Morris then proceeds to show that also in the process of the Nakba Zionist leaders decided immediately, and in his opinion rightly so, not to permit the return of the refugees so as not to infringe upon the possibility of the establishment of a Jewish state. The decision then, by the Israeli government, to prevent the return of the Palestinian refugees, clearly indicates that its members were aware of their capability to bring about ethnic cleansing and also justified this indirectly. Some Arab villages had maintained good neighborly relations with the Jews until 1948 and some intervened for leave of the Arabs to stay in the country, however even this did not help them to remain in their homes. Zionism was not concerned with this village or that, depending on its attitude or behavior towards the new state. Arabs stayed in the country as a result of mercy, and, according to Morris, this was a mistake. The Zionist project had to evict the inhabitants of the country in order to realize itself.

Yosef Weitz, one of the heads of the Jewish National Fund at the time, provides evidence which is surprising in its honesty. He tells of the destruction of the village of Zarnouka after its inhabitants had been expelled, despite of numerous calls by Jews to abstain from their expulsion. He describes how he stood in the village watching the bulldozers destroy the buildings which until recently had housed their inhabitants, feeling nothing. The destruction of Palestinian lives does not cause any doubts or emotional disturbance. He is even surprised about the fact that he feels nothing. As if this destruction was expected and premeditated.

The Nakba continues as a non-event and causes anxiety when it appears

If the basic argument outlined above is correct, it can help explain two processes related to the Nakba, one situated in the reality of the violent conflict, the other in the consciousness of Israeli Jews who become exposed to the Nakba..

The Nakba as an event that did not occur in the past continues to not occur also today. Extra-judicial assassination of Palestinian leaders, confiscation of land, barring of Palestinian farmers from working their land by means of the wall under construction and the denial of their basic human rights are understood by the Zionist subject as means of the war against terrorism and as defensive acts necessary in order to fight the intolerable and illegitimate terror of the Palestinian people, who, according a recent statement by an Israeli leader, are seen as a genetically abnormal species. If the Nakba never happened, it is impossible that millions of Palestinians today are refugees who demand restitution of their rights. It is also impossible that the Palestinians demand control of at least one fifth of Palestine, because they also had nothing before. In the eyes of the Zionist subject, everything that is happening today is completely disconnected from the historical context of the Nakba. Reference to the past of 1948 is made only in line with the Zionist narrative which holds that, 'just like they did not accept us here in the past (e.g. according to the UN Partition Plan), they continue to try to throw us into the sea also today.'

The above also helps explain the indifference, in Israel, towards the question of Palestinian return. On no other issue related to the conflict is there a similar and broad consensus like the consensus against Palestinian return. As a matter of fact, there is not even a need to oppose return, because the very discussion of this topic is perceived as an existential threat. It is therefore excluded from the agenda of public debate without meaningful reference. All Zionist Jewish political parties share this approach, which meets the logic of the argument that the Nakba never happened and results in a situation where the rights of millions of people remain denied until this day. If the Nakba was perceived by the Zionist subject as an event that really took place, there could be some Israelis, at least among the Zionist left, who would realize that some responsibility must be taken by the Israeli side for what happened in 1948. However, if there was no Nakba, there is also nothing to take responsibility for.

Another interesting process related to the denial of the Nakba is what happens to Jewish Israelis who become exposed to it for the first time, whether through activities organized by Zochrot or otherwise. The Jewish Israeli individual experiences the encounter with the Palestinian Nakba as a kind of surprising slap in the face. Suddenly, and without prior warning or preparation (a result of years of denial), s/he is confronted with a tragedy that happened to the Palestinian neighbor, while s/he feels part of the side that had caused it. This creates intolerable feelings of guilt and helplessness. Guilt may be relatively easy to cope with, because it can be recognized and forgiveness can be requested. If we are ready to really listen to the voice of the Nakba, the major problem, however, is the challenge of all we have grown up with. The Zionist subject stands on somewhat shaky ground. It established itself by means of a violent process that is denied as an event that did not happen. When the ghostly spirit of this process is risen (by Zochrot, for example), it triggers astonishment and anger. If, however, we rise above these emotions towards a more objective perspective of this threatening past, we may be able to find the key to conciliation almost sixty years after the Nakba.

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Post Your Comment

Posted by Brent on May 25, 2011 #134741

"Alan Ireland" makes an interesting point. The Arabs had every right to speak "harshly" in regards to the colonialist Zionists invading both the Palestinian Arabs of Palestine and threatening the Middle East as a whole. Remember the Zionist Jews were violent, threatening, thieving colonialists and imperialists mostly from America, Europe (specifically Britain, Germany see the Haavara agreement the Zionist Federation of Germany made with the Nazis from 1933-1941), and Russia). An interesting point on something Mufti Mohamed Amin al-Husayni (aka Hajj Amin al-Husayni) once said (that Zionist hasbara propagandists like to key in on). From a Jews for justice in Palestine website mondoweiss . net a person made a comment back to Zionist bringing up a quote from a radio broadcast Hajj Amin al-Husseini made on a Nazi propaganda radio station in to the Middle East during WWII (also remember the Zionists themselves worked with the Nazis see the "Lehi" aka Stern Gang that had future "Israeli" Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir of the right wing Likud party as its one time leader, the Betar Naval Academy and the pro-fascist Revisionist Zionist movement of Vladimir "Ze'ev" Jabotinsky or "Vladimir Hitler" as David Ben-Gurion nicknamed him, see the Zionist Jewish fascist Abba Ahimeir who led the fascist Zionist Revisionist Maximalist movement one of Abba's good friends was a man named Benzion Netanyahu who is the father of current Zionist "Israeli" Likud Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, see the Betar Naval Academy of the Revisionist Zionists in Mussolini's Italy in the Italian port city of Civitavecchia, and I could go on! See Lenni Brenner's books "Zionism in the Age of the Dictators" and "51 Documents: Zionist Collaboration with the Nazis". Note Lenni Brenner is a Jewish American himself, who is a strong anti-Zionist activist.

As for the quote from mondoweiss.net regarding a quote of Hajj Amin al-Husseini saying on a radio broadcast to "kill the Jews wherever you find them" he was speaking of Zionists and the mondoweiss.net person stated correctly using an analogy with Native Americans resisting and fighting against white Europeans who stole their land and killed them:

"Would it have been natural for Sitting Bull to proclaim, 'Kill the white-eyes wherever you find them?' You kill invaders. That’s how it works. Either you kill them, or they kill you.

The Jews won and they killed the Arabs. Husseini wanted it the other way around. Yes, that’s natural."
Posted by Alan Ireland on May 15, 2010 #112465

Raanan Geberer refers to "blood-curdling threats" from "Arab politicians such as the Mufti". Yes, such threats were made. But he and everyone else knows that they were empty threats - typical examples of the vain Arab rhetoric that has always been cleverly exploited by the Zionists, and used to justify their seizure of Arab lands.
Posted by samer dallasheh on June 13, 2008 #42001

Zionist are like Muqtada Al Sadr, every one are afraid to trace the origins of their leaders, but when you have the courage you understand them.

Like Muqtada he comes from a family thats not of any Arab origin as a matter of fact he is a roma origin (check the dictionary).

Like the Zionist they presented no actual blood line heiretage, thus they have no connection to the tribe of Judea (sens, Judaism as they claim, came from Judea).

Am not saying all the Jews are not from Judea, but rather all those Ashkenazi, western Jews are not of any origin of the tribe of Judea.

Meaning, Jews of Semitic Origin are no more than less than 1 million people, Jews as in all the people of the world that worship or claim they follow or just by name they say they are followers of The tribes of Judea religion are roughly 16 million.

Even though you can't have a "semitic Jewish majority in the land of Palestine" because right now Palestinians are:1.5 million Inside Occupied Palestinians, 1.5 million in Gaza, 2.5 million in the west bank, and over 2-3 million exiled.

Remember, Palestinians have a high birth rate, take note from one village that took a world recored of the highest birth rate in the history mankind (Buiena Village).

About Denying the Nakba, to deal with those people ask them: Do you believe 6 million European people died that followed the Judaism religion?. Do you believe man landed on the moon?..

You must help him understand, because there is more proof to back down the Nakba, rather than the Supposedly Gas chambers.

Show him a picture of all the villages, Start with Hitin, then show him how it was demolished, he might think the event was not documented at all, but it has been documented, 90% of it is documented, the media just refuses to show it.


Then compare the native american indian holocaust to the Jewish Holocaust, he will probably be outraged for that a man that has no relations to the tribe of Judea to be compared to a black man. But i must say more than 15 million native Americans died, and its well documented.

Then ask him, do you still deny the Nakba, but don't be like them, imprison people that deny the Jewish holocaust or whatever, we have nothing to hide (Palestinians) nothing to hide at all, what happened, happened.


But at the end, ask, why? why make the Palestinians suffer? don't they have any emotions like you do?
Whats their fault?.
Why are you eliminating the Jewish race? (Zionism is killing the Jewish race, its destroying Judaism, not fulfilling it).

And so on.....


Only Morons deny the Jewish Holocaust (I mean deny all of it, and deny that it ever happened, but one can not deny the exploitation of the holocaust, one can not deny the exaggeration and fiction films about it).

And one can not deny the Nakba , and remember its not exaggerated (no one said 1000000 Palestinians died, no one said 100,000 Palestinians died, we said at least 13,000 Palestinians died during 1947-1948) and 500 villages destroyed.


Thats all i hope we can solve this, and stop under the Aqsa mosque (Not the dome, The real Aqsa), Stop the Gaza siege, Stop Demolishing our New Mosques, stop destroying our culture, stop the West Bank Annihilation, stop the ethnic cleansing, stop Denying people the write to return, stop Abolishing the Laws of humanity, stop abolishing the international law.

If you don't stop the Gaza Siege, suicide bombing is coming back (WE don't want that, I REPEAT We Palestinians DonT want that!!!! ) but am sorry to regret this, but in this year alone you have killed nearly what? 500 Palestinians?, 1 Israeli die and you kill 120 Palestinians, you have killed 200 more, and killed almost 200 patients who needed medical aid.. So that means there are many people who are ready to be "martyrs" and many families. If not entire families.

And you saw Iraq, one suicide bomber explodes, then people gather around, and another suicide bomber explode killing more people.... Don't be so naive.


Stop the west bank expansion or say hello to the third intifada armed with helicopters and tanks from Iran.


Am not an Israeli, but i encourage you if you want to keep this land you are going to have to listen to me, or else don't worry! they won't do a holocaust on you. They will follow the Rasol ways.
Posted by Astrid Essed on May 11, 2008 #37670

Dear Editor and readers,

At first, I want to express my great appreciation for this organisation and website

As a human rights activist in the Netherlands and international, I am of course, very moved by the humanitarian implocations, for the Palestinian people, as the result of the foundantion of the State of Israel

Therefore and out of appreciation, I present to you my underlying article about the Palestinian refugee-problem

Much succes with your humanitarian and rightful activities

May God bless you

Kind regards

Astrid Essed
Amsterdam
The Netherlands

P/S See my article:

The Palestinian Refugee-problem and the ideology of transfer
Disaster over Palestine
Dedicated to the anonymous Palestinian victims of expulsion
In solemn remembrance and respect for Count Folke Bernadotte, who, being UN mediator for Palestine in 1948, has paid with his life by defending the rights of the Palestinian Arabs, who were victims of the expulsion by the Israeli-zionist militias. [1]
"The Arabs will have to go, but one needs an opportune moment for making it happen, such as a war."
Part of a letter of the zionistic-Israeli politician David Ben Gurion, to his son, dd 1937
UN General Assembly Resolution 194 dd 11-12-1948
The General Assembly,
Having considered further the situation in Palestine
.............
.............
.............
.............
Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible

Instructs the Conciliation Commission to facilitate the repatriation, resettlement and economic and social rehabilitation of the refugees and the payment of compensation, and to maintain close relations with the Director of the United Nations Relief for Palestine Refugees and, through him, with the appropriate organs and agencies of the United Nations;


Few things in life are so tragic like streams of refugees, who, fleeing for the violence of war or directly expelled, are moving painfully forward, towards an uncertain future.
Those images are daily seen on TV and leave behind a non-erasable memory

A Refugees and military activities:

There are few photographs and archives about this tragic fate of Palestinian refugees, on the eve of the one-sided exclamation of the State of Israel, by the zionistic politician Mr Ben Gurion [2] and the military confrontations thereafter, between the Israeli-zionistic military organisations [the Hagana, Palmach and the terrorgangs Irgun and Stern] on the one hand, and the armies of several Arabic countries [3], on the other hand

However, contrary with the pro-Israeli-propaganda, no great impression should be made of the strength of the Arabic troops, since it concerned countries, which had become independent recently [for that time under British or French mandatory or ''protective'' authority], and therefore couldn't have formed an extended army, while the zionist troops were very well armed, partly due to own effort, partly due to British military training

Also the Transjordanian army [the present Jordan], which was the biggest army, only fought in the evironments of Jerusalem

A further problem was also the lack of harmony on Arab side, because of mutual conflicts
The result of the military confrontation between the zionist-Israeli troops and the Arab troops is known.
Not only the zionist army won the war, also it occupied 20% of the area, which was granted to the Arabs according to the UN Partition Plan for Palestine [resulting in UN General Assembly-resolution, nr 181,which was accepted dd december 1947]

The rest of the curtailed Arab area was occupied by respective Trans-Jordan [namely the present Westbank and Eastern-Jerusalem] and Egypt [the present Gaza-area]
Jerusalem, which would have a corpus separatum-status [an international character], according to the Partition Plan, was partly occupied by the newly exclaimed State of Israel [Western Jerusalem], partly by Trans-Jordan [Eastern Jerusalem]

B The humanitarian toll of the war

The humanitarian toll of the war was very high, especially on the Arab-Palestine side.

Although it has to be admitted, that war-crimes and grave human rights violations took place on both sides [4], the fact remains, that, yet apart from the horrible character as such, a number of massacres in Arabic villages, instigated by zionist/Israeli terrorgangs, has had disasterous consequences for the Palestinian/Arab population in Palestine

The most notorious was the massacre in the Arab village of Deir Yassin in the night of april the 9th to the 10th, in which 100 to 120 Palestinian/Arab inhabitants were killed.
Those responsible, who have been actually never brought to justice, were units of the Israeli-zionistic terror-gangs Irgun and Stern [with knowlegde of the regular zionist army the Haganah, which would later deny any responsibility], with as commanders the later Israeli prime-ministers mr Begin and mr Shamir.

Moreover, in his book ''The Revolt'', the Israeli prime-minister Mr Begin alleged, that without the ''victory'' (his words) of Deir Yassin, the State of Israel probably wouldn't be founded at all.

Although this allegation could have referred to the intimidating effect on the Palestinian civilian population, without a deliberated plan to provoke this, it must be noticed, that this bery allegation was made by one of the responsible commanders for the attack on Deir Yassin.

Yet apart from the massacres and the following immense stream of refugees, on which I shall refer, also 400 Arab villages were destroyed [5]

C Military aims of Plan Dalet and other Israeli military operations:

Although I will not go as far as to assume, that the massacres were aimed deliberately to expell the Arab population, it is highly probable, that Plan Dalet (the zionist-Israeli military operations between april the 1st and may the 15th 1948] has had as main goals as well the occupation of parts of the Arab area [according to the decision by UN resolution 181], as the destruction of Arab villages in the Jewish area [according to the decision by UN resolution 181]

Referring to that occupation, I quote the ''introduction'' to Plan Dalet:

´´a) "The objective of this plan is to gain control of the areas of the Hebrew state and defend its borders. It also aims at gaining control of the areas of Jewish settlements and concentration which are located outside the borders (of the Hebrew state) against regular, semi-regular, and small forces operating from bases outside or inside the state.´´
Regarding the deliberate destruction of Arab villages I quote Section B of the Plan:
´´Destruction of villages (setting fire to, blowing up, and planting mines in the debris), especially those population centers which are difficult to control continuously. ... Mounting search and control operations according to the following guidelines: encirclement of the village and conducting a search inside it. In the event of resistance, the armed force must be destroyed and the population expelled outside the borders of the state. ´´

Also the later Israeli-zionist plans were embroidering on the mourning clothes of military attacks on Arab villages and the occupation of as much as Arab area as possible.

D Stream of refugees:

It will not be a surprise to the reader, that as a consequence of this dirty war, hunderd-thousands of Arab people fled, due to the ditect and indirect expulsion from their houses and lands
Indirectly because of fear for new massacres, directly because of expulsions by the Israeli-zionistic regulary troops, as well the terrorgangs Irgun and Stern.

More than 750.000 Arab refugees were the victims of those expulsions

Not only those expulsions are definitely inhuman, morover, being ethnic cleanings, they belong to the gravest war-crimes

The humanitarian toll has its consequences till today and is still enlarged by the second ethnic cleansing in 1967, after the Israeli victory in the Six Day war [the socalled ''june-war], by which more than 250.000 people fled or were expulsed.

Further it needs to be said, that this expulsion of the Arab-Palestinian population was not only one of the aims of Plan Dalet, but was also rooted in the political-ideological ideas of great number of prominent zionist leaders

I will refer to this later

1 Israeli version of the cause of the Refugee-stream:

Evidently, the need of an official apologetic Israeli version of the tragic events was high, not only as a justification for the ''outside world'', but also to keep up the myth of the ''high standard'' principles of the ''Jewish State'', in contrast with the ''barbarism'' of the Arabs, thus corresponding with the Western-European racist views about Arab people.

Except for those racist views, there were more reasons for believing the Israeli version and supporting the new-founded State of Israel, like Western guilt-feelings about the holocaust, religious fantasies about the refoundation of the ''Promised Land'' by people, who called themselves ''christians'' and colonial thought [which didn't consider it as unacceptable to ''found a State'' in the country of the autochtonous people, in casu the Palestinian Arabs]

In the Israeli version, the emphasis was being laid on the voluntarily departure of the Arab-Palestinian population, in response to an Arab broadcast-call, which urged the Palestinian Arabs to leave Palestine, waiting for the victory over ''the Jews'' [thus referring to the zionist-Israeli armies]

However, neither the official Israeli ''first generation'' historians, nor the later New Historians, who are contradicting the official version, ever have found any proof of the existence of this socalled ''broadcast-call''

2 Unmasking of the official Israeli version: The New Historians

However, another important discovery, which would throw a whole different light on the official Israeli history, was made by the New Historians like Benny Morris, Ilan Pappe and others, namely the evident proof, that no ''voluntarily depart'' had taken place, but either a mass expulsion or a flight in panic, out of fear for future massacres

The proof was found in Israeli governmental and army papers, archive-materials and other documentation.

Yet apart from the official governmental and army material, it is highly unlikely anyway, that a great deal of the civilian population, consisting of complete families, would abamdon homes and lands to depart because of a broadcast-call of one or more Arab leaders.

Further, the flight behaviour [a mother without her children, a man without his wife, a family without an old father or mother], as well as the leaving behind of neccessary tools [like clothes] shows a hurried and unvoluntarily depart.

To complete the zionist ''hall of shame'', some films have been discovered, which show pictures of the actual expulsion of the civilian population by Israeli military units.

E The deeperlying motivation for the ethnic cleansings:

1 The views of the zionist leaders

Untill recently the reality of the expulsions, as well as the criminal character of them, has been unmasked, but yet too little, the deeperlying causes have been emphasized
It must be said, that there are critical zionists, who have the moral decency, not to deny the scientific findings of the New Historians, but they assumpt mosltly, that the ethnic cleansings were not a part of a deliberate plan.

That is not correct

The historian Ilan Pappe states in his book ''The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine'', that the decision to this ethnic cleansing has been made in the socalled ''Red House'' [located on the present Sheraton Tel Aviv], on the 30th of march 1948, during a meeting, headed under the chairmanship of the Israeli politician David Ben Gurion.

That this isn't a new view, is being confirmed by a number of statements, made by zionist leaders in the past, who obviously have shown no moral objections against the expulsion of the Arab-Palestinian population.

In the introduction to this article I have quoted already a sentence of a letter, the already named politician David Ben Gurion wrote to his son in 1937.

Another notorious example is article III of the draft charter, which Theodor Herzl [6] proposed to the Sultan of Turkey [7] in 1901, which would give the Jews the right to deport the existing rural population [8]

However, it needs to be said, that not all zionist leaders hold this opinion.

So at the 7th zionistic Congress in Basel in 1905, Hillel Zeitlin [9] challenged the defenders of the transfer-idea by stating:
''Everyone seems to forget, that Palestine belongs to others and that the country is fully populated'' [10]
The removal of the Jews to Palestine couldn't be succesfull, according to Zeitlins opinion, unless the others should be transferred ''which shouldn't be executed by anyone ''

Probably without realizing fully, this conscientious man referred to the very essence of the latter unscrupulous actions of the zionist leaders in the war of 1948.

2 The demografical problem

Although is being shown, that the perversity of the ethnical cleansing is based on zionist views from the time of Theodor Herzl, which are related to the then colonial contempt for the autochton population, also another motive must be named, the socalled ''demografical problem''

This ''demografical problem'' has played a part in early Israeli politics till nowadays and can be in shortly characterized as the fear for a Palestinian population-majority in Israel.

It is clear

When a society is based on equal rights for everyone, regardless race, religion or descent, the number of different population-groups are of no importance.

However, when State policy is based on unequal rights, or stronger, on the denial of the right of existence of a certain part of the population, the demografical situation does matter.

It is clear also, that the Arab Palestinians were the autochton population of Palestine.
Further it is a fact, that they would have obtained the de facto political power in Palestine, when there had been a normal decolonization-process, like in the surrounding countries [Syria, Jordan, the then Trans-Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon etc]

However, due to Jewish immigration from the outside and the unjust claim of zionist leaders on Palestine, with the Balfour Declaration in their hands, the Palestinian right on selfdetermination was fundamentally and seriously violated.

The international legitimation for the violation of their own UN/Charter [11] was consolidated in UN resolution 181, by which Palestine was divided in a Jewish and Arab part, completely ignoring the right of selfdetermination of the autochton Arab population.
Quite rightly, the representive of the Arabic High Committee called the resolution a colonial decision

However, to legimate this ''Jewish State'' [12] [the part of Palestine, that according to Resolution 181, was granted to the zionists] as much as possible [13], it was of the utmost importance, to make it as ''empty'' as possible [14], since the zionist idea was hardly to defend, when there was an Arab majority.

Further the zionist leaders wanted to make ''room'' for the immigration of Jewish peope from Europe and the rest of the world.

F After the june-war, ethnic cleansing again

It is of importance, to focus on the relation between the zionist idea and the ethnic cleansings, because of its next role in the ethnic cleansings after the Six Day War [june war] in 1967.

Of course the zionist leaders knew, that the occupation of the remaining Palestinian areas [the Westbank and Gaza, which were conquered by Jordan and Egypt in the war of 1948] would meet important critics, especially because of the extension of members of the UN, since 1948.

The old bastion of colonial powers with some subject semi-colonies [like a number of South-American countries, the Fillippines and the very poor Haiti] had been extended with a large number of ex-colonies, which could see a comparison between the fate of the Palestinians and their own colonial past.

However, given the nature of zionist ''necessity'', again ethnic cleansings took place, with as tragic result 250.000 Palestinian refugees.

Only this time the zionists didn't succeed in fullfilling the dirty game, because of the above named extension of the UN and the Palestinians, who had become wiser by the former bitter experiences.

The occupation of the remaining of historial Palestine was a fact and despite the unanimously accepted Security Resolution 242 [15], which Israel summoned to withdraw from the Palestinian territories [The Westbank, the Gaza-area and Eastern Jerusalem] , the occupation still lasts, 41 years later, with as humanitarian consequences, numerous human rights violations of the Palestinian civilian population, mass-expropriations by the illegal settlementspolicy and the building of the Israeli Wall through occupied Palestinian area.


G Tragical fate of the refugees and UN General Assembly resolution 194:

When it was too late for the 750.000 fled or expelled Palestinian Arabs, the international community reacted.
In General Assembly Resolution 194 [dd december 1948] Israel was summoned to permit the refugees to return to their homes or that compensation should be paid for their property.
It is a known fact, that Israel is ignoring this resolution now for 59 years, with as a consequence, that the most of the refugees are living since 1948 in refugee-camps, in often miserable circumstances, without much chance on better conditions, as well in the occupied Palestinian territories as in surrounding countries.

Yet apart from the bad conditions, for which Israel is head-responsible, at least in the occupied territories [16], it has been said already, that Israel always has refused to acknowledge the right to return of the Palestinian refugees or to compensate them for their loss of property.

Except inhuman, it is also discriminatory, since every Jew in the world has the right to ''return'', while this right has been denied to the original autochton population.

Epilogue:

I have tried to make clear, that the Palestine refugee-problem is not only the tragic result of the warcrimes in 1948, but is founded on a conscious ideology of transfer, which is a ''necessity'' in the concept of an artificially created ''Jewish State''
On this ''Jewish State'' concept, the idea of transfer has been based, which is still vivid in Israeli society

As long as there is an artificially created ''Jewish State'', which came to this world with the assistance of unholy midwives, being the UN countries, who approved the UN partition-plan, resulting in resolution 181, there will be no peaceful existence with the neigbouring Arab countries.

Neither a peaceprocess, based on International Law, is possible, since occupation, the construction of the Wall and settlementspolicy are considered as the very tools for the safety of the State of Israel.

Therefore, lasting peace and a just solution of the refugee problem will be possible only in a non-zionist, secular Palestine with equal rights for all inhabitants, based on a one man, one vote government

Astrid Essed
Amsterdam
The Netherlands

Notes:

[1] Count Folke Bernadotte was assissinated in september 1948 by 3 members of the Stern gang, among else the later Israeli prime-minister Shamir, who was also responsible for the Deir Yassin massacre in april 1948
The reason for this assisination was his courageous defence of the human rights of the Palestinian Arabs, trying to prevent their expulsion

[2] Although the UN partition-plan for Palestine had been approved by the UN [by means of UN resolution 181], it didn't imply yet the official acknowledgment of the ''Jewish State'', since there was still UN-discussion about the ''tutelage'' of Palestine
Of course this ''tutelage'' would be based on the approved UN resolution 181, in respect with the percentage of Palestine, which would be ''Jewish'' [56,4] and ''Arab'' [42,8] and Jerusalem, being a ''corpus separatum'' [international status]
[3] The respective Arabic States were Egypt, Trans-Jordan [the present Jordan], Syria, Lebanon and Iraq
[4] At april 13th, 4 days after the Deir Yassin massacre, there was an Arab military attack on a medical convoy travelling to Haddassah Hospital, with as a tragic result the death of 77 doctors, nurses, and other Jewish civilians.
[5] The Israeli Prof I Pappe is referring to even 531 villages
[6] Founder of the zionism
[7] The draft charter was part of the request to the Sultan of Turkey dd 1901, to establish a ''Judisch-Ottomanische LandCompagnie zur Besiedlung von Palestina und Syrien'', simply said, the establishment of a Jewish community in Palestine [which has been often described as a ''Syrian province'']
[8] See: Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons, A Historical Survey of Proposals to
Transfer Arabs from Palestine
1895 - 1947
Posted by Nalan on April 27, 2008 #36103

For Raanan Geberer I say, I do disagree with you, my mother lived in Jerusalem all her young life (nineteen hundreds and forties..), they had Jews Palestinians as neighbours and they used to visit and have normal relationships.

Maybe you are referring to western jews "who do not have a right to live in place of Palestians " who immigrated to Palestine and decided to take revenge from Palestinians because their sufferings and the holocaust that happened in Europe. I would understand and feel with the Jewish people suffering but that doesnt justify the massacres they committed and still committ for the Palestinians
Posted by Raanan Geberer on March 20, 2008 #32256

Clearly the "Nakba" was wrong insofar as Zionist forces expelled peaceful civilians from their homes. But let's look at what led up to it. For 30 years, and especially after the UN Partion resolution, Arab politicians such as the Mufti were making blood-curdling threats like "We don't expect that one Jew will be left in Palestine after we win" and "We will make a war of extermination, like that of the Crusades."

Also, Jewish settlements were constantly the victim of petty harassment by Arab groups, who cut electric lines, slaughtered cows belonging to Jewish villagers, threw stones at Jewish buses and occasionally took pot shots at Jews.

After 30 or so years of this, is it any wonder that some of the young, hotheaded Jewish soldiers, who in any case were probably about 19 years old and didn't have the judgment of mature men, "took things into their own hands" and decided to take their resentment out at whatever Arabs they encountered?

Now, if you say that AFTER the war, the Israeli government should have agreed to take the Arab refugees back as part of a peace settlment, then you are correct! But unfortunately, they didn't--they were "drunk with victory."


Raanan Geberer
(whose father and uncle fought in the Haganah in 1948)
Posted by jans on January 1, 2008 #26404

VIVA PALESTINA!!!!!!
Posted by Dushyant Soni on October 27, 2007 #22417

Israel A.K.A Azrael A.K.A Bogeymen of Satan



"Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs... Surely it would be a crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as their national home."

Mahatma Gandhi
Posted by bklynbill on March 16, 2007 #14431

for years,I wondered why isreal was not Palestine.the stories of the great crusaders traveling to palestine.the old world maps,depicting the state of palestine.even the world atlas,fails to include their flag.the world seems blind to this,but I don t think for long.spread your story.Put Palestine back on the map.May GOD Bless you,and help you.
Posted by kald123456@hotmail.com on March 9, 2007 #14318

انا مستعد لاى مساهمة اسمى احمد الحمارنة من غزة خريج كلية حقوق
Posted by Jihad Zdouq on March 1, 2007 #14208

The Nakba has to the worst thing that had happen to a group of people ever. Jews use the holocaust to spread their propaganda throughout the world, Arabs must use the Nabka just as the Jews use the holocaust. We will win one day and it doesn't matter how long it takes, so to anyone who doesn't want a Palestinian state beware because we are going to be around for a long time. Keep this site alive.