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Palestinian History, A Chronology
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Posted on September 9, 2001

From Earliest Times Until 1949

B.C.

600,000-10,000 B.C.
Paleolithic and Mesolithic period. Earliest human remains in the area, found south of Lake Tiberias, dated to circa 600,000 B.C.
10,000-5,000 B.C.
Neolithic period. Establishment of settled agricultural communities.
5,000-3,000 B.C.
Chalcolithic period. Copper and stone tools and artifacts. Remains from this period found near Jericho, Beersheba, and the Dead Sea.
3,000-2,000 B.C.
Early Bronze Age. Arrival and settlement of Canaanites (3,000-2,500 B.C.).
ca. 1,250 B.C.
Israelite conquest of Canaan.
965-928 B.C.
King Solomon. Construction of the temple in Jerusalem.
928 B.C.
Division of Israelite state into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
721 B.C.
Assyrian conquest of the kingdom of Israel.
586 B.C.
Judah defeated by Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar. Deportation of its population to Babylon; destruction of the temple.
539 B.C.
Persians conquer Babylonia. Some Jews allowed to return. Construction of a new temple.
333 B.C.
Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great brings Palestine under Greek rule.
323 B.C.
Death of Alexander leads to alternate rule by Ptolemies of Egypt and Seleucids of Syria.
165 B.C.
Maccabees revolt against the Seleucid ruler Antiochus Epiphanes and go on to establish independent Jewish state.
63 B.C.
Incorporation of Palestine into the Roman Empire.

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70 - 1899

A.D.
70
Destruction of the Second Temple by Roman Emperor Titus.
132-135
Bar Kokhba revolt suppressed. Jews barred from Jerusalem and Emperor Hadrian builds new pagan city of Aelia Capitolina on its ruins.
330-640
Palestine under Byzantine rule: Jerusalem and Palestine increasingly Christianized.
638
Arabs under the Caliph 'Umar capture Palestine from Byzantines.
661-750
Umayyad caliphs rule Palestine from Damascus. Dynasty descended from Umayya of Meccan tribe of Quraysh. Construction of Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem by Caliph 'Abd al-Malik (685-705). Construction of al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem by Caliph al-Walid I (705-715).
750-1258
'Abbasid caliphs rule Palestine from Iraq. Dynasty, founded by Abu al-' Abbas al-Saffah, who is descended from' Abbas, uncle of the Prophet.
969
Fatimid dynasty, claiming descent from the Prophet's daughter Fatima and her cousin 'Ali, rule Palestine from Egypt. They proclaim themselves caliphs in rivalry to the' Abbasids.
1071
Saljuqs, originally from Isfahan, capture Jerusalem and parts of Palestine, which remains officially within the 'Abbasid Empire.
1099-1187
Crusaders establish the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1187
Kurdish general Saladin (Salah al-Din who was born in Takrit northern Iraq, the birth place of Saddam Hussein too), son of Ayyub, the sultan of Mosul, defeats Crusaders at Hittin in northern Palestine and recaptures Jerusalem. The Ayyubid dynasty rules Palestine from Cairo.
1260
Mamluks succeed Ayyubids, ruling Palestine from Cairo; defeat Mongols at Battle of 'Ayn Jalut near Nazareth.
1291
Mamluks capture final Crusader strongholds of Acre and Caesarea.
1516-1917
Palestine incorporated into the Ottoman Empire with its capital in Istanbul.
1832-1840
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha of Egypt occupies Palestine. Ottomans subsequently reassert their rule.
1876-1877
Palestinian deputies from Jerusalem attend the first Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul, elected under a new Ottoman Constitution.
1878
The first modern Zionist agricultural settlement of Petach Tiqwa established (click here to learn more about Zionist and its impact on the Palestinian people).
1882-1903
First wave of 25,000 Zionist immigrants enters Palestine, coming mainly from eastern Europe.
1882
Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris starts financial backing for Jewish settlement in Palestine.
1887-1888
Palestine divided by Ottomans into the districts (sanjaks) of Jerusalem, Nablus, and Acre. The first was attached directly to Istanbul, the others to the wilayet of Beirut.
1896
Theodor Herzl, an Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist and writer, publishes Der Judenstaat, advocating establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine or elsewhere.
1896
Jewish Colonization Association, founded in 1891 in London by German Baron Maurice de Hirsch, starts aiding Zionist settlements in Palestine.
1897
First Zionist Congress in Switzerland issues the Basle Program calling for the establishment of a "home for the Jewish people in Palestine." It also establishes the World Zionist Organization (WZO) to work to that end.

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1900 - 1918

1901
Jewish National Fund (JNF) set up by fifth Zionist Congress in Basle to acquire land for WZO; land acquired by JNF to be inalienably Jewish, and exclusively Jewish labor to be employed on it, click here to read to Zionist apartheid & racist quotes.
1904-1914
Second wave of about 40,000 Zionist immigrants increases Jewish population in Palestine to about 6% of total. Since the inception of Zionism it has been claiming that Palestinian was an empty country, click here to read our rebuttal to this argument.
1909
Establishment of the first kibbutz, based exclusively on Jewish labor. Tel Aviv founded north of Jaffa.
1914
World War I starts.
1916
30 January
Husayn-McMahon correspondence between Sharif Husayn of Mecca (leader of the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans) and Sir Henry McMahon (British High Commissioner of Egypt) ends in agreement for postwar independence and unity of Arab provinces of Ottoman Empire.
16 May
Sykes-Picot Agreement secretly signed, dividing Arab provinces of Ottoman Empire between Britain and France. Agreement revealed by Bolsheviks in December 1917.
June
Sharif Husayn proclaims Arab independence from Ottomans. Arab Revolt against Istanbul begins.
1917
2 November
Balfour Declaration. British Secretary of State Balfour pledges British support for "a Jewish national home in Palestine."
1918
September
Palestine occupied by Allied forces under British General Allenby.
30 October
World War I ends.

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1919 - 1922

1919-1923
Third wave of over 35,000 Zionist immigrants increases Jewish population in Palestine to 12% of total. Registered Jewish landownership (1923) totals 3% of area of country.
1919
27 January-10 February
First Palestinian National Congress in Jerusalem sends memoranda to Paris Peace Conference rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.
28 August
Paris Peace Conference sends Commission of Inquiry to Near East, led by U.S. commission members Henry C. King and Charles Crane. England and France decline to participate. Commission recommends "serious modification" of idea of "making Palestine distinctly a Jewish Commonwealth."
1920
April
Disturbances in Palestine; 5 Jews killed, 200 wounded. British appoint Palin Commission of Inquiry .Commission report attributes troubles to none fulfillment of promises of Arab independence and fear of political and economic consequences of Zionism.
25 April
Palestine Mandate assigned to Britain by Supreme Council of San Remo Peace Conference.
May
British prevent Second Palestinian National Congress from convening.
1 July
High Commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel, an Anglo-Jewish politician, inaugurates British civilian administration.
December
Third Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Haifa, elects Executive Committee, which remains in control of Palestinian political movement from 1920 to 1935.
1921
March
Founding of the Haganah, the Zionists' illegal underground military organization.
1 May
Disturbances in Jaffa protesting large-scale Zionist immigration; 46 Jews killed, 146 wounded. British Haycraft Commission of Inquiry (October) attributes disturbances to fears of Zionist mass immigration.
8 May
Haj Amin al-Husayni appointed Multi of Jerusalem.
May-June
Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convening in Jerusalem, decides to send a Palestinian delegation to London to explain the Palestinian case against the Balfour Declaration.
1922
3 June
British colonial secretary Winston Churchill issues White Paper excluding Transjordan from scope of Balfour Declaration. Ignoring political criteria, White Paper authorizes Jewish immigration according to "economic absorptive capacity" of the country.
24 July
League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine.
August
Fifth Palestinian National Congress, meeting in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists (see 1901 entry on JNF).
October
First British census of Palestine shows population of 757,182 -78% Muslim Arab, 11% Jewish, 9.6% Christian Arab. It is often claimed that Palestine was empty until Zionist Jews made the Palestinian desert bloom, click here to read our response to this argument.

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1923 - 1931

1923
29 September
British Mandate for Palestine comes officially into force.
1924-1928
Fourth wave of 67,000 Zionist immigrants, over 50% from Poland, increases Jewish population of Palestine to 16% of total. Registered Jewish landownership (1928) totals 4.2% of area of country. Click here to view a map illustrating a breakdown of Palestinian-Zionist landownership per district as of 1945.
1925
Revisionist Party, founded in Paris by Polish Zionist Vladimir Jabotinsky, demands establishment of Jewish state in Palestine and Transjordan and stresses military aspects of Zionism.
October
Sixth Palestinian National Congress convenes in Jaffa.
1928
June
Seventh Palestinian National Congress convenes in Jerusalem.
1929-1939
Fifth wave of over 250,000 Zionist immigrants increases Jewish population in Palestine to 30% of total. Registered Jewish landownership (1939) totals 5.7% of area of country.
1929
August
Riots arise out of dispute between Jews and Palestinians over claims to Wailing (Western) Wall in Jerusalem, a site holy to Muslims and Jews. In resulting clashes 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded, 116 Palestinians killed and 232 wounded, the latter mainly by British military .
October
General Palestinian conference meets in Jerusalem to formulate position on Wailing Wall controversy.
1930
14 January
League of Nations appoints international commission to investigate legal status of Arabs and Jews at Wailing Wall.
March
British Shaw Palestinian Commission of Inquiry attributes 1929 disturbances to Palestinian fears of Jewish immigration "not only as a menace to their livelihood but as a possible overlord of the future."
October
British Hope-Simpson report on land settlement, immigration, and development in Palestine concludes that there is not sufficient agricultural land for substantially increased numbers of Jewish settlers.
British Colonial Secretary , Lord Passfield, issues White Paper which takes note of views of Hope-Simpson and Shaw commissions of inquiry.
1931
Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization), Irgun or IZL for short, founded by Revisionist groups and dissidents from Haganah, advocates a more militant policy against Palestinians. Valdimir Jabotinsky is commander-in-chief.
14 February
British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald in a letter to Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann virtually retracts Passfield White Paper.
18 November
Second British census of Palestine shows population of 1,035,154-73% Muslim Arab, 16.9% Jewish, 8.6% Christian Arab.
December
Lewis French, British director of development for Palestine, publishes report on "landless Arabs," caused by Zionist colonization.

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1932 - 1938

1933
14 July
British Secretary of State issues statement on resettlement of Palestinian farmers displaced from land acquired by Zionists.
1935
October
Revisionists quit World Zionist Organization (WZO) to form New Zionist Organization with aim of "liberating" Palestine and Transjordan.
November
Shaykh 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam, Muslim cleric from Haifa, leader of first Palestinian guerrilla group fighting British policy in Palestine, killed in action against British security forces.
1936
25 April
Leaders of Palestinian political parties form Higher Arab Committee under Chairman Haj Amin al-Husseini.
8 May
Conference of Palestinian National Committees in Jerusalem calls for no taxation without representation. Great Rebellion begins.
25 August
Lebanese guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawuqji enters Palestine leading 150 volunteers from Arab countries to help fight British.
11 November
Royal Commission headed by Lord Peel arrives in Palestine.
1937
18 January
Royal Commission leaves Palestine.
April
IZL/Irgun, linked to Revisionist movement under Ze'ev Jabotinsky, reorganizes and advocates armed attacks on Palestinians.
7 July
Royal (Peel) Commission report recommends partitioning Palestine into Jewish state comprising 33% of country including Haifa, Galilee, and coastal plain north of Isdud; Arab state in rest of country (to become part of Transjordan); and British mandatory enclaves including Jerusalem. Part of Palestinian population to be forcibly transferred, if necessary, from Jewish state, click here to learn how deeply the concept of "transfer" (Ethnic Cleansing) is entrenched in the Zionist theology.
23 July
Arab Higher Committee rejects Royal Commission proposal and demands independent unitary Palestine with protection of "legitimate Jewish and other minority rights" and the safeguarding of British interests. Rebellion intensifies.
September
Arab National Congress at Bludan, Syria, attended by 450 delegates from Arab countries, rejects partition proposal, demands end to Mandate, a stop to Zionist immigration, and prohibition of transfer of Palestinian lands to Zionist ownership.
1 October
British dissolve Arab Higher Committee and all Palestinian political organizations. Five Palestinian leaders deported. Haj Amin al-Husayni escapes to Lebanon.
11 November
British establish military courts to counter Palestinian rebellion.
1938
April-August
IZL/Irgun bombings kill 119 Palestinians. Palestinian bombs and mines kill 8 Jews.
June
British officer Orde Wingate organizes Special Night Squads of British and Haganah personnel for operations against Palestinian villages.
18 October
British military commanders take over administration from district commissioners to help suppress rebellion. Reinforcements brought from England.
19 October
British recapture Old City of Jerusalem from Palestinian rebels.
9 November
Report of British Woodhead technical commission of inquiry (January-April 1938) declares impracticability of Royal Commission's partition proposal. British call for general conference on Palestine in London attended by Arabs, Palestinians, and Zionists.

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1939 - 1946

1939
7 February
London Conference starts.
27 March
London Conference ends without agreement.
22-23 May
British House of Commons votes 268 to 179 in favor of White Paper issued by Colonial Secretary of State Malcolm MacDonald. White Paper calls for conditional independence for unitary Palestinian state after ten years; admission of 15,000 Jewish immigrants annually into Palestine for five years, with immigration after that subject to "Arab acquiescence" ; protection of Palestinian land rights against Zionist acquisition. British official estimates of Palestinians killed or executed by British military and police during Arab Rebellion is over 2,000 for 1936 and 1938 alone. Total for all years is estimated at 3,500-4,000. About 500 Jews killed in same period.
1 September
World War 11 begins.
October
Stern Gang or Lochemay Herut Yisra'el (LEHI; "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel") formed by dissident IZL members led by Avraham Stern.
1940-1945
Arrival of over 60,000 Zionist immigrants, including 20-25,000 who have entered the country illegally (April 1939-December 1945), increases Jewish population in Palestine to 31% of total. Registered Jewish landownership rises to 6.0% of area of country.
1940
28 February
Land Transfers Regulations, suggested by 1939 White Paper to protect Palestinian land rights against Zionist acquisition, enter into force.
1942
February
Avraham Stern killed by British police. It should be noted that the Stern gang received extensive financial and military support from the Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy to terrorize the British Mandate in Palestine. Click here to learn more about the subject.
May
Biltmore Conference in New York attended by Zionist leaders from U.S. and Palestine, urges that "Palestine be established as a Jewish commonwealth."
1943
November
Five-year limit on Jewish immigration (expiring April 1944) extended so all 75,000 visas permitted in 1939 White Paper can be filled.
1944
January
Stern Gang and IZL join to conduct terror campaign against British.
6 November
Stern Gang murders Lord Moyne, British resident minister of state, in Cairo.
1945
8 May
End of World War in Europe.
September
Large-scale illegal Jewish immigration into Palestine resumes under Haganah control.
13 November
British foreign secretary Ernest Bevin issues White Paper announcing continued Jewish immigration into Palestine after exhaustion of 1939 White Paper quota.
1946
6 March
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, proposed in 1945 White Paper, arrives in Palestine.
May
Anglo-American Committee report estimates size of Jewish armed forces at around 61-69,000 people (Haganah: 58-64,000; IZL: 3-5,000; Stern: 2-300) and declares "private armies" illegal. Recommends admission of 100,000 Jews into Palestine and abolition of Land Transfers Regulations. Palestinians strike in protest.
11-12 June
Arab League meeting in Bludan, Syria, adopts secret resolutions warning Britain and U .S. that disregard for Palestinian rights will damage their oil and commercial interests in Arab world.
July
British White Paper on terrorism in Palestine accuses Haganah of cooperating with IZL and Stern Gang in acts of sabotage and violence.
22 July
Ninety-one British, Palestinian, and Jewish civil servants and visitors killed when IZL blows up wing of King David Hotel in Jerusalem housing British government secretariat.
31 July
Anglo-American Conference in London produces Morrison-Grady Plan proposing federal scheme to solve Palestine problem. Zionist and Palestinian leaders reject the plan.

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1947


26 January
London Round Table conference reopens.
7-10 February
British foreign secretary Ernest Bevin proposes variant of Morrison-Grady Plan to London Conference and Jewish Agency. Arab delegates in London and Jewish Agency reject proposal.
18 February
Bevin announces submission of Palestine problem to United
Nations.
28 April-15 May
UN General Assembly special session on Palestine problem leads to appointment of eleven-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
8 September
Publication of UNSCOP report. Majority of members recommends partition, minority recommends federal solution.
16-19 September
Arab League denounces UNSCOP partition recommendation, and appoints Technical Military Committee to supervise Palestinian defense needs.
26 September
Arthur Creech Jones, British colonial secretary, announces Britain's decision to end Palestine Mandate.
29 September
Arab Higher Committee rejects partition.
2 October
Jewish Agency accepts partition.
7-15 October
Arab League meets at Aley, Lebanon. Iraqi General Isma'il Safwat, chairman of Technical Committee, warns of dangers posed by Zionism at end of Mandate and urges Arab states to mobilize their utmost force and efforts to counter Zionist intentions." One million pounds sterling allocated to Technical Military Committee.
29 October
Britain says it will leave Palestine in six months if no settle-
ment reached.
27 November
Report by Safwat warns of virtual impossibility of overcoming Zionist forces with irregulars; urges prompt Arab action in organizing military force; advocates training Palestinians to defend themselves.
29 November
UN General Assembly recommends variant of UNSCOP partition plan allocating 56.5% of Palestine to Jewish state and 43% to Arab state with international enclave around Jerusalem; 33 votes for, 13 against, 10 abstentions. Arab representatives walk out (Click here to read more why Arabs rejected the U.N. partition plan).
30 November
Haganah calls up Jews in Palestine aged 17-25 to register for military service.
December
Arab League organizes Arab Liberation Army (ALA), a voluntary force of Arab irregulars under guerrilla leader Fawzi al-Qawuqji to help Palestinians resist partition.
2 December
Palestinians start three-day strike protesting UN Partition Resolution. Intercommunal clashes leave 8 Jews and 6 Palestinians dead.
8 December
Britain recommends to UN that Palestine Mandate be terminated on 15 May 1948 and independent Jewish and Palestinian states be established two weeks later.
8-17 December
Arab League Political Committee meeting in Cairo declares partition illegal and resolves to provide 10,000 rifles, 3,000 volunteers (including 500 Palestinians) and a further 1,000,000 pounds sterling to Technical Military Committee.
15 December
British announce intention to hand over policing in Tel Aviv-Petach Tiqwa area to Jews and in Jaffa to Palestinians.
17 December
Jewish Agency Executive reports that American Jews will be asked for $250 million to help Jewish community in Palestine.
21 December-late March 1948
Haganah and IZL attack villages and Bedouin settlements of coastal plain north of Tel Aviv in first coastal "clearing" operation.
31 December
Haganah and IZL paramilitary gangs perpetrate Balad al-Shaykh (Haifa) massacre, in which more than 60 civilians are murdered.
December 1947-January 1948
Arab Higher Committee organizes 275 local committees for defense of Palestinian towns and villages.

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1948


January
Palestinian guerrilla leader 'Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni secretly returns to Palestine after ten-year exile to organize resistance to partition.
8 January
First contingent of 330 ALA volunteers arrives in Palestine.
10 January
ALA assault on Jewish settlement of Kefar Szold repulsed with help of British.
14 January
Haganah concludes arms deal with Czechoslovakia for $12,280,000 worth of arms including 24,500 rifles, 5,000 light machine guns, 200 medium machine guns, 54 million rounds of ammunition, 25 Meserschmitts. By end of Mandate at least 10,740 rifles, 1,200 machine guns, 26 field guns, and 11 million rounds of ammunition arrive in Palestine. Rest of arms arrive by end of May.
16 January
British report to UN estimates 1,974 people killed or injured in Palestine from 30 November 1947-10 January 1948.
20 January
British administration announces that predominantly Jewish or Palestinian areas will be gradually handed over to local majority group in every area concerned.
21 and 28 January
Second and third contingents of 360 and 400 ALA irregulars arrive in Palestine.
January-March
JNF leaders encourage evictions from villages of Haifa area Haganah attacks villages near Lake al-Hula. Palmach attacks Negev Bedouin.
16 February
ALA mounts unsuccessful attack on Jewish settlement of Tirat Zvi north of Baysan.
18 February
Haganah calls up men and women aged 25-35 for military service.
24 February
U.S. delegate to UN says Security Council role should be to keep peace in Palestine, not enforce partition. Syrian delegate suggests appointing committee to explore possible Jewish Agency-Arab Higher Committee agreement.
March
Transjordanian prime minister Tawfiq Abu al-Huda secretly meets British foreign secretary Bevin. They agree that Transjordanian forces will enter Palestine at end of Mandate but will restrict themselves to area of Arab state outlined in partition Plan. (Click here to read our response to the Zionist claim that seven Arab armies attempt to annihilate the newly emerging "Jewish State")
5-7 March
Qawuqji enters Palestine and assumes command of ALA units in Jinin-Nablus-Tulkarm triangle within area allotted to Arab state.
6 March
Haganah declares general mobilization.
10 March
British House of Commons votes to end Mandate on 15 May. Plan Dalet finalized by Haganah. Plan provides for military conquest of area allotted by UN Partition Plan to Jewish state and of substantial Palestinian territories beyond this state's boundaries. Plan contains a series of interlocking operations.
18 March
President Truman secretly receives Chaim Weizman and pledges support for declaration of Jewish state on May 15.
19-20 March
U.S. delegate asks UN Security Council to suspend action on partition plan and to convene General Assembly special session to work on a trusteeship plan. Arabs accept limited trusteeship and truce if Jews also accept. Jewish Agency rejects trusteeship.
25 March
President Truman calls for immediate truce and says U.S. will share responsibility for temporary trusteeship.
30 March-15 May
Second coastal "clearing" operation carried out by Haganah Alexandroni brigade and other units. Attacks and expulsions drive out almost all Palestinian communities from coastal area from Haifa to Jaffa prior to British withdrawal.
1 April
Delivery of first consignment of Czech arms deal: Ship "Nora" arrives in Haifa from Yugoslavia with 4,500 rifles, 200 light machine guns, 5 million rounds of ammunition. Two hundred rifles, 400 machine guns and further ammunition ferried in by airplane. UN Security Council resolutions call for special session of General Assembly and agree to U.S. proposal for truce to be arranged through Jewish Agency and Arab Higher Committee.
4 April
Haganah launches Plan Dalet.
4-15 April
Battle of Mishmar ha-'Emeq: ALA repulsed by Haganah from Jewish settlement of Mishmar ha-'Emeq. Haganah, Carmeli, Alexandroni, and Palmach units occupy villages in Marj ibn 'Amir.
6-15 April
Operation Nachshon: In first operation of Plan Dalet Haganah Giv'ati Brigade and other units capture villages along Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road from local Palestinian militia.
8 April
'Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, charismatic Palestinian militia commander, Jerusalem district, is killed leading counterattack to recover al-Qastal village.
9 April
IZL and Stern Gangs massacre some 250 inhabitants in village of Dayr Yasin near Jerusalem.
12 April
General Zionist Council decides to establish independent state in Palestine on 16 May.
13-20 April
Operation Har'el under Plan Dalet launched at conclusion of Operation Nachshon. Villages along Jerusalem road attacked and demolished. All subsequent Haganah operations until 15 May 1948 undertaken within framework of Plan Dalet.
15 April-25 May
Operation Yiftach: Palmach captures Safad from ALA and local militia (9-10 May). Attacks and psychological warfare used to empty villages of eastern Galilee and Galilee panhandle. Operation Matate (Broom) drives out Bedouin and villagers from area south of Rosh Pinna to Jordan River.
16-17 April
Haganah Golani brigade and Palmach units capture Tiberias as it is evacuated by British. Palestinian inhabitants flee.
17 April
Security Council resolution calls for military and political
truce.
20 April
U.S. submits Palestine trusteeship plan to UN.
21 April
Operation Misparayim (meaning scissor): British forces suddenly withdraw from Haifa precipitating all-out Haganah dawn offensive against city's Palestinian population. Offensive accompanied by heavy mortar shelling of Palestinian residential quarters.
22 April
Resistance of local Palestinian militia in Haifa collapses. Haifa's Palestinian population flees under combined Haganah shelling and ground offensives.
25 April
IZL starts massive mortar shelling of Jaffa's residential quarters; simultaneously launches ground offensive to cut off northern Manshiyeh quarter from rest of city.
26-30 April
Haganah Har'el and Etzioni brigades launch Operation Yevussi in and around Jerusalem; attack East Jerusalem residential quarter of Shaykh Jarrah but are forced to hand it over to British; capture West Jerusalem residential district of Qatamon from Palestinian irregulars. Flight of Palestinian inhabitants.
27 April-5 May
Operation Chametz: Haganah launches major ground offensive against eastern Jaffa suburbs and neighboring villages to cut off city from its hinterland. Some 50,000 civilians flee under combined IZL and Haganah attacks.
30 April
All Palestinian quarters in West Jerusalem occupied by Haganah and residents driven out.
1 May
The Zionists forces occupied and massacred more than 70 civilians from 'Ayn al-Zaytun (Safad).
3 May
175-200,000 Palestinian refugees reported to have fled from areas taken by Zionists.
8-16 May
Haganah Har'el and Giv'ati brigades undertake Operation Makkabi. Capture villages on al-Ramla-Latrun road.
9 May-1 June
Operation Barak: Strikes by Haganah Giv'ati and Negev brigades south and West of al-Ramla.
10-15 May
Golani brigade occupies Baysan, attacks villages of Baysan Valley south of Lake Tiberias.
12-14 May
Arrival of second and third Czech arms consignments for Haganah: 5,000 rifles, 1,200 machine guns, 6 million rounds of ammunition.
13 May
Arab Legion, ALA, and local militia attack and capture Jewish settlements of Etzion bloc, retaliating for attacks on Hebron road. Jaffa formally surrenders to Haganah.
13-21 May
Operation Ben-Ami: Carmeli brigade occupies Acre and coastal area north of city .
14 May
Haganah launches Operation Qilshon (Pitchfork), occupying strategic areas in Jerusalem evacuated by British and taking Palestinian residential quarters outside Old City from Arab irregulars.
Haganah launches Operation Schfifon to take Old City of Jerusalem.
State of Israel proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 4:00 P.M.
President Truman recognizes state of Israel.
15 May
British Mandate ends. Declaration of State of Israel comes into effect.
15-17 May
Lebanese regulars cross border and temporarily retake villages of Malikiyya and Qadas from Haganah, but are forced out of fortress of Nabi Yusha'.
15-28 May
Transjordanian Arab Legion troops cross River Jordan and move towards Jerusalem capturing Jewish settlements of Atarot and Newe Ya'aqov north of city (17 May). In Jerusalem, Legion retakes Shaykh Jarrah quarter (16 May), fails to capture stronghold in Notre Dame monastery (17-25 May), and takes control of Jewish Quarter of Old City (28 May).
On the 23th of May 1948, al-Tantura was perpetrated against 250 civilians and POWs.
15 May-4 June
Iraqi units cross Jordan River, are repulsed from Crusader fortress of Belvoir , and besiege settlement of Gesher for a week. Iraqi regulars move into Nablus-Jinin- Tulkarm triangle 24 May). Haganah advances on Jinin, evicting villagers (28-31 May); it attacks and briefly occupies Jinin before being repulsed (3-4 June).
15 May-7 June
Egyptian regular troops cross border, move up coast to Isdud and capture Jewish settlements of Yad Mordechai (24 May) and Nitzanim (7 June) in Negev. Another column of Egyptian irregulars moves to Bethlehem linking up with Arab Legion. In battle with IDF (21-25 May), Jewish settlement of Ramat Rachel south of Jerusalem changes hands several times and is finally retained by Jews.
16 May-10 June
Syrian columns advance over border and temporarily capture Jewish settlement of Zeniach (18-20 May), are repulsed from twin settlements of Degania (20 May), and capture settlement of Mishmar ha-Yarden (10 June). Syrians, Lebanese, and ALA recapture Malikiyya (6 June).
16-30 May
IDF Operation Ben-Nun: Israeli Sheva' and other brigades fail to capture al-Latrun from Arab Legion in attempt to open Jaffa-Jerusalem road, but occupy villages in vicinity.
20 May
UN Security Council appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as its mediator in Palestine.
22 May
UN Security Council resolution calls for ceasefire.
9-10 June
IDF Operation Yoram, launched against Arab legion by Har'el and Yiftach brigades, fails to capture al-Latrun.
11 June-8 July
First Truce.
28-29 June
Count Bernadotte suggests economic, military, and political union of Transjordan and Palestine containing Arab and Jewish states: Negev and central Palestine to go to Arabs; Western Galilee to Jews; Jerusalem to be part of Arab state with administrative autonomy for Jews; Haifa and Jaffa to be free ports and Lydda free airport. Rejected by both sides.
7 July
Security Council calls for prolongation of truce.
7-18 July
IDF Operation Dani: Capture of Lydda and al-Ramla from local militia. Population of both cities expelled. Three or four IDF brigades occupy villages along Jerusalem-Jaffa road and cluster of villages east of Jaffa. Yiftach brigade's assault on Arab Legion in al-Latrun (17 July) ends with Second Truce.
8-14 July
IDF Operation Dekel: Carmeli and Sheva' brigades push east and south from Acre, capture Nazareth from ALA under Qawuqji and occupy Lower Galilee.
8-11 July
IDF Operation An-Far: Giv'ati brigade, moving against Egyptians, empties villages south of al-Ramla in an arc between Hebron hills and coast.
9-18 July
IDF Carmeli Brigade fails to recapture the Zionist settlement of Mishmar ha-Yarden, south of Lake Tiberias, that had been occupied by Syrian troops.
15 July
UN Security Council resolution calls on governments and authorities concerned to issue indefinite ceasefire orders to their forces in Palestine to take effect within three weeks.
17 July
IDF Operation Qedem against Old City of Jerusalem is repulsed.
18 July-15 October
Second Truce.
24-26 July
IDF Operation Shoter: Carmeli, Alexandroni, and Golani brigades attack and capture three villages of Little Triangle south of Haifa.
16 August-end of September early October
Negev and Yiftach brigades attack and expel Bedouins and inhabitants of villages in Negev.
24-28 August
IDF Operation Nikayon (Cleansing): Giv'ati Brigade occupies coastal area west of Yibna and north of Isdud.
16 September
Report by UN mediator Count Bernadotte proposes new partition of Palestine: Arab state to be annexed to Transjordan and to include Negev, al-Ramla and Lydda; Jewish state in all of Galilee; internationalization of Jerusalem; return and compensation of refugees. Rejected by Arab League and Israel.
17 September
UN mediator Count Bernadotte murdered in Jerusalem by Stern Gang. Replaced by his American deputy Ralph Bunche.
15 October-9 November
IDF Operations Yo'av and ha-Har: Negev, Giv'ati, and Yiftach units move against Egyptians to capture Beersheba, Isdud, Majdal, and coastal strip as far as Yad Mordechai, and villages of Hebron Hills. Har'el brigade captures southern Jerusalem corridor.
29-31 October
IDF Operation Hiram: Upper Galilee pocket, held by Qawuqji's forces, occupied and emptied by Giv'ati, Oded, and Sheva' brigade troops. Tens of thousands flee. Israeli forces move into southern Lebanon as far as Litani River. On the 29th of October 1948, the IDF commits the famous Safsaf (Safad) massacre in which more than 60 civilians are murdered.
November
IDF Har'el Brigade expels several communities in Jerusalem corridor along border with Transjordanian forces. 4 November UN Security Council resolution calls for withdrawal of forces to positions occupied prior to 14 October and establishment of permanent truce lines.
Second week November-mid 1949
IDF expels inhabitants from villages 5-15 km inside Lebanese border, followed by expulsions from other Galilee villages.
22 December-6 January 1949
Operation Horev launched to drive Egyptians out of southern coastal strip and Negev. Asluj and al-'Awja captured. Israeli troops move into Sinai until British pressure forces withdrawal. Golani and Har'el brigades attack on Rafah ended by ceasefire (7 January).
27 December
IDF Alexandroni brigade's attack on isolated Egyptian forces in Faluja pocket is repulsed.

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1949

24 February
Israeli-Egyptian Armistice: Egypt keeps coastal strip Gaza Rafah and evacuates Faluja pocket; Asluj-al-'Awja area demilitarized.
End of February
IDF units intimidate 2-3,000 villagers into leaving Faluja pocket in violation of Israeli-Egyptian Armistice Agreement.
March
IDF Negev and Golani brigades complete occupation of Negev as far as Umm Rashrash/Eilat.
23 March
Israeli-Lebanese Armistice: Frontier of Mandate Palestine accepted; Israel withdraws from most of Lebanese territory.
3 April
Israeli-Jordanian Armistice: Jordan takes over Iraqi-held Nablus-Jinin- Tulkarm triangle but is forced to cede area around Wadi 'Ara; Israel controls Chadera-'Afula road; existing status quo in Jerusalem accepted by IDF and Arab Legion.
20 July
Syrian-Israeli Armistice: demilitarized zones established around 'En Gev and Dardara (including Mishmar ha-Yarden).

Back To Top

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Post Your Comment

Posted by Essdeen on June 11, 2013 #150857

I have recently come to understand that Palestine was the name given to the region, now Israel, by the rulers of the Roman Empire. Up until the introduction of the Zionist movement, both Arabs and Jews lived happily together on the and. This is only natural since they are COUSINS. It was the Zionist movement which has caused the problem. This radical group cleansed the land of the Arabs, to a large degree in the late 1800's-early 1900's, which is a very sad indictment. Both groups Jews and Arabs living there, identified with Palestine as being their land. their identity was from that piece of dirt which was both their own. With the renaming of the land to Israel in '48, the Jews have changed their thinking of identification, over time, from the name Palestine, to Israel. Unfortunately with the name of Palestine being erased, the Arabs have lost their sense of identity. Atrocities have been done by both sides. As I said earlier, both people groups are cousins, coming from Abraham. One through Ishmael and the other Isaac. Both groups need the reality of that to really sink into their thinking and genuinely forgive each other. The Jewish people need to let the Arabs back in, not as a two country solution, but to just live side by side again in harmony. There needs to be both Jews and Arabs in government and in all areas of leadership and to be treated equally in all ways. If anyone wants to say who am I to say such things, I just want to say that I am indeed an Arab, through my mother, who was born and raised in Jordan to Arab parents who were both born in Nazareth in the early 1900's :-)
Posted by Brent on May 31, 2013 #150261

Johns Hopkins University geneticist Dr. Eran Elhaik "The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses" in the peer-reviewed Oxford University Press scientific journal "Genome Biology and Evolution" (GBE) accepted on December 5, 2012

Genome Biol Evol (2013) 5 (1): 61-74. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evs119 First published online: December 14, 2012

Dr. Eran Elhaik: "Our findings support the Khazarian hypothesis"

Also in Haaretz on December 28, 2012

Dr. Eran Elhaik "The various groups of Jews in the world today do not share a common genetic origin. We are talking here about groups that are very heterogeneous and which are connected solely by religion."

The bottom line, he (Johns Hopkins University geneticist Dr. Eran Elhaik, Ph.D.) claims, is that the "genome of European Jews is a mosaic of ancient peoples and its origin is largely Khazar."

From the article "The Jewish People's Ultimate Treasure Hunt" in Haaretz on December 28, 2012 by Ofer Aderet
Posted by Mazin Al Nahawi on April 20, 2013 #149588

Dear Palestine Remembered,
Thanks for all your hard work, but I was surprise to see in one of the pages of Palestine Remembered, (Palestinian History, A Chronology), some of the myths and fabricated history, which the Zionists themselves use to steal our land and history.

Here is what real archeologists found:
"British archaeologist Michael Rice (who worked for decades in the Arab world) concludes that the efforts of Israeli archaeologists and their European and American colleagues “have produced nothing of proven archaeological value” that demonstrates that the Israelites were ever in Palestine (Rice 1994, 114). In addition to the lack of archaeological evidence for David or Solomon (in the ardently excavated levels of Jerusalem) or for Moses, the captivity in Egypt, or the Exodus, one also finds that the great Biblical events left no trace in the annals of the Egyptians and the Babylonians (Rice 1994, 114-116).
Even in side the Zionist state, and it "academic institution", for example, Tel Aviv University Professor of Archaeology Ze’ev Herzog’s research on the Canaanite cities in the Late Bronze Age shed more light on how Zionist ideology influences the interpretation of archaeology because the latter “served as a tool in building a national identity of modern Israelis.” He argued that “a thorough examination of the archaeological findings free of preconception displays that the city of the Late Bronze Age is essentially different from the Canaanite city as it was presented, and is still presented, by historians, Biblical scholars and archaeologists” (Herzog 2003). He summed up the major archaeological findings of 70 years of intensive excavations in Palestine:
“The patriarchs’ acts are legendary, the Israelites did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus, they did not conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David and Solomon, nor of the source of belief in the God of Israel. These facts have been known for years, but Israel is a stubborn people and nobody wants to hear about it” (Herzog 1999).
Commenting on Herzog’s findings, Tel Aviv University Professor of Archaeology Israel Finkelstein noted that “today more than 90% of scholars agree that there was no Exodus from Egypt” (Finkelstein 2004)."

Please check out a great book by Basem Ra'ad called Hidden History.

Once again, thanks for all what you do, and because this website is so valuable, especially that it shows the real history of our Palestinian people and their struggle, I thought to bring to your attention this issue.

Peace, Salaam.
Posted by US - Georgia on November 26, 2012 #147552

It is sad so many people are killed over land... Prior to the British Mandate the Palestinians and Jews lived side by side fairly peacefully. Sadly now the Palestinian people are paying for what the Germans did to the European Jews. How can a people do to others what has been done to them. Even the Orthodox Jews in America are against the Zionist movement in Israel. Sadly WE in America support this ugliness through our tax dollars. Shame on us - - for our main knowledge of "the state of Israel" is mainly acquired via the TV....very biased and dominated by Jewish owned media.
Posted by A.R Momen on August 24, 2012 #145754

I have noticed that the author who posted the chronology has unfortunately demanded the same items and stages of history as the Jewish library did,moreover the comments arguments have been driven to an Israeli selected racecourse where the comments talk about the genetic and geographic origins of Palestinians and Israelis.Please pay attention to the following points ;(1) All the prophets of the Sons of Israel are in fact Muslims ,so we (Muslims) have the right to inherit them , and please listen to the translation of verse 133,Surat 2 - Albaqara "Or were you present when death came to Jacob ,when he said to his sons : What will you worship after me ? They said: We will worship your God ,the God of your fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac,One God ,and to Him we have surrendered as Muslims." (2) With respect to the promise given to Abraham to have the Holy Land of Palestine, let's remember this verse 68 - Surat 3 Al-Imran which says "Verily among mankind who have the best claim to Abraham are those who followed him , and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who believed (Muslims).(3) There is a decisive heavenly denial of pretending that the prophets were Jews ,Surat 2 Albaqara - verse 140 " Or say you that Abraham,Ishmael ,Isaac,Jacob and the offspring -Al-Asbat-of the twelve sons of Jacob were Jews or Christians ?And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony {to believe in Prophet Muhammad when he comes as is written in their books}."
As a conclusion , we as Palestinians too do not deserve the land of Palestine unless we become true Muslims ,otherwise the conflict will be a materialistic struggle and evidently the more powerful in material possession will overcome.
Posted by Brent on March 27, 2012 #142748

Responses to "YehudaMedina"

“Dr. Ariella Oppenheim's genetic study. Who were the original and ongoing (since neolithic times) inhabitants of Palestine e/Israel? Arabs, who converted to Judaism, Christianity, and now Islam.

Results of a DNA study by geneticist Ariella Oppenheim appears to match historical accounts that Arab Israelis and Palestinians,[15][16] together as the one same population, represent modern "descendants of a core population that lived in the area since prehistoric times", albeit religiously first Christianized then largely Islamized, and all eventually culturally Arabized.[15] Referring to those of the Muslim faith more specifically, it reaffirmed that Palestinian "Muslim Arabs are descended from Christians and Jews who lived in the southern Levant, a region that includes Israel, Sinai and part of Jordan." Geneticist Michael Hammer praised "the study for 'focusing in detail on the Jewish and Palestinian populations.'"[15]

While both the Palestinians and the world's distinct Jewish populations have mixed with invading and host populations respectively, Oppenheim's team found "that Jews have mixed more with other populations, which makes sense because they were more likely to leave the Levant."[15] It could also mean that Levantines have had more Sub-Saharan gene flow in the last few centuries.

However, a follow-up study [Nebel et al. 2001] found Jews to be more closely related to the peoples north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turkish "Turks" of Anatolia, and Armenians) than to the Arabic-speakers of Israel/Palestinian and other neighboring now Arabic-speaking Levantines.[109][110]

...

NYTimes: Geneticists Report Finding Central Asian Link to Ashkenazi Levites

They say that 52 percent of Levites of Ashkenazi origin have a particular genetic signature that originated in Central Asia, although it is also found less frequently in the Middle East. The ancestor who introduced it into the Ashkenazi Levites could perhaps have been from the Khazars, a Turkic tribe whose king converted to Judaism in the eighth or ninth century, the researchers suggest.

Their reasoning is that the signature, a set of DNA variations known as R1a1, is common in the region north of Georgia that was once occupied by the Khazar kingdom. The signature did reach the Near East, probably before the founding of the Jewish community, but it is still rare there. The scholars say they cannot exclude the possibility that a Jewish founder brought the signature on his Y chromosome to the Ashkenazi population, but they consider that a less likely explanation.


Hillel Halkin. "Jews and Their DNA." Commentary Magazine 126:2 (September 2008): beginning on page 37. Excerpts:

"Early studies of mitochondrial DNA reported that Jewish women, unlike Jewish men, did not correlate well with one another globally.

Jewish females from the same backgrounds, on the other hand, yield opposite results: their mitochondrial DNA has markedly less resemblance to that of Jewish women from elsewhere than it does to that of non-Jewish women in the countries their families hailed from. ... In the absence of rabbis to perform conversions, they [Jewish immigrants to new lands] married local women who, while consenting to live as Jews, were not halakhically Jewish.
Posted by YehudaMedina on February 27, 2012 #142060

To the ignorant people saying that Ashkenazi Jews are not descended from Hebrews, you are ignoring the fact that 15% of Ashkenazi Jews have the same Semitic DNA as us Sephardi Jews and Palestinians. The DNA on European Jews was done in Stratford University by a Palestinian Doctor named, Dr. Nadia Al Zahery. I'm Sephardi Middle Eastern Jews and I'm whiter than some Ashkenazi friends of mine from Poland. What's your racist point? There is no "Pure Jewish Hebrew race" nor is their anything pure nowadays. Also if Ashkenazi Jews were Khazars, they'd look Asian, their Yiddish would have Turkic but it doesn't, and their DNA would be the same as the DNA of Muslim Turks from Kazakhstan, but it Isn't. Here's the link. Either way if Palestinians do descend from ISRAELites, they have more reason to recognize Israel and live as Israelis, their true identities. They are just Arabized Islamicized Israelites while we kept our ancestors original religion, Judaism. Proud to be a Jew.

Here is the link from Stratford University regarding Ashkenazi Jews and their Semitic DNA:

stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_p1023-1034.pdf

www.rense.com/general48/Palestinians.pdf
Posted by Lizzie on February 23, 2012 #141940

moowahahahahahahah! (evil laugh) this site sucks butter sock!!!!!!!!!
Posted by alon on September 12, 2011 #137772

So much destruction and death .... And because of what? Because of old books written about 5,000 years ago by persons unknown, who wrote about the events I doubt that happened...

Why this division? what is "Arabi"? what is "yahud "? Are they not men just the same?

Never wonder if this yakoob is not Jacob? Ishaq is Itshak ? Abraham is Ibrahim? What is this nonsense anyway?
Posted by Elias on June 20, 2011 #135492

Thank you for your efforts, this is really great work, refutes the Zionists claims and propaganda.
But I have three comments;

First; Mentioning the Two Jewish temples, their date of building and destruction, in an article talks about the right of the Arabs and the Palestinians in this land, is an affirmation of the right of the Zionists in it, and their rights in the place in the Al-Aqsa Mosque to rebuild their temples, that we all know the story of the temples is nothing but Zionists lie to convince the people of their right in this land.

Second; Stating that the “Umayyad caliphs rule Palestine from Damascus. Dynasty descended from Umayya of Meccan tribe of Quraysh. Construction of Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem by Caliph 'Abd al-Malik (685-705). Construction of al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem by Caliph al-Walid I (705-715).”
That was right, but mentioning this without mentioning the first date of building the Al Aqsa mosque, could be considered as hiding of an important era of the history of this land. It’s known that as for the date of building al-Aqsa, there is difference among scholars concerning this point. But, it is reported that Adam (SAW) first built it according to Ibn Hajar and he preferred this opinion. It is also reported that Yaqoob Ibn Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim was the first builder. Then, it was rebuilt by Sulaiman.

Third; “1920April Disturbances in Palestine; 5 Jews killed, 200 wounded”
“1921 1 May Disturbances in Jaffa protesting large-scale Zionist immigration; 46 Jews killed, 146 wounded. “ Not only Jews But several hundreds of Palestinians were killed during this era by the Jewish gangs.
Those are my only comments and I send my appreciations and thanks to everyone who worked in this important project.
Posted by Brent on May 16, 2011 #134278

So again "Leon Stansfield" the genetic research of Dr. Ariella Oppenheim (herself an "Israeli" Jew) from Hebrew University in "Israel" (occupied Palestine) proves that Palestinians are again descendants of the prehistoric people of the land of Palestine: such as the Canaanites. Note prehistoric people like the Canaanites came before the "Israelites". Note the corrupted Bible has been completely refuted and has no historical relevance for scholars! Also today's white European Khazar "Jews" are not "Israelites" anyway! Again: "In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turkish Turks of Anatolia, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors and other now Arabic speaking Levantine peoples." Palestinians are the true, original indigenous people of the land of Palestine (i.e. Canaanites) and they simply mostly converted to the religion of Islam over the last 1,300 years or so. And Palestinians have also been linguistically and culturally "Arabized" over this period as well, but the people remain the same indigenous Canaanite Palestinians.
Posted by Brent on May 16, 2011 #134277

Responding to "Leon Stansfield" from the genetic research of Dr. Ariella Oppenheim (an "Israeli" Jew herself) from Hebrew University in "Israel"

“Dr. Ariella Oppenheim'­s genetic study. Who were the original and ongoing (since neolithic times) inhabitant­s of Palestine e/Israel? Arabs, who converted to Judaism, Christiani­ty, and now Islam.

Results of a DNA study by geneticist Ariella Oppenheim appears to match historical accounts that Arab Israelis and Palestinia­ns,[15][16­] together as the one same population­, represent modern "descendan­ts of a core population that lived in the area since prehistori­c times", albeit religiousl­y first Christiani­zed then largely Islamized, and all eventually culturally Arabized.[­15] Referring to those of the Muslim faith more specifical­ly, it reaffirmed that Palestinia­n "Muslim Arabs are descended from Christians and Jews who lived in the southern Levant, a region that includes Israel, Sinai and part of Jordan." Geneticist Michael Hammer praised "the study for 'focusing in detail on the Jewish and Palestinia­n population­s.'"[15]

While both the Palestinia­ns and the world's distinct Jewish population­s have mixed with invading and host population­s respective­ly, Oppenheim'­s team found "that Jews have mixed more with other population­s, which makes sense because they were more likely to leave the Levant."[1­5] It could also mean that Levantines have had more Sub-Sahara­n gene flow in the last few centuries.

However, a follow-up study [Nebel et al. 2001] found Jews to be more closely related to the peoples north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turkish "Turks" of Anatolia, and Armenians) than to the Arabic-spe­akers of Israel/Pal­estinian and other neighborin­g now Arabic-spe­aking Levantines­.[109][110­]
Posted by Leon Stansfield on March 31, 2011 #132206

Is there any, I mean ANY, possibility that the people called Palestinians are descendants of the original northern state of Israel which was taken into captivity by the Assyrian empire in the 700s BC? If not, can you please point me to genuine evidence that the Palestinian people descended from some other biblical people or person?
Posted by Jamie on November 11, 2010 #125590

Havent read all the comments but it was called Palestine for over 1200 years a lot longer than most countries have their current names. They shouldnt have to go anywhere to please these Zionist Jews who have as much claim to the land as Catholics have to Rome. Palestine is for Palestinians. 85% of land was in possession of the Arabs in 1947 & less than 6% was in possession of the Jews. That alone proves who has the right to the land to anybody with a sense of justice.
Posted by balad on August 31, 2010 #120602

I am surprised to see that the biblic myths of the "conquest of Canaan" and of the united "kingdom of Salomon" are still present on this site, while no respectable archeologist can still confront its peers with such ideas.
There is ample and serious evidence to indicate that Palestinian highlands were repopulated by local folks around ~-1100 BC (i.e. after the destruction of Egyptian rule over Cananaite lowland cities). Also that no "united kingdom" ever existed. The only notable power between the 10th and 8th centuries BC was the Omrite dynasty in northern high and middle lands (the so-called "Israel") which was not Jewish since this word made no sense at that time, and anyway came from Judea later on, around 600 BC and later.
Posted by the iconoclast on August 15, 2009 #86333

To argue about the original inhabitants of Palestine [or the name Palestine] is as stupid as trying to figure out the true name and inhabitants of England [vikings? danes? celts? saxons? normans? scots? druids? angles? ...] who cares? Anyone who comes to this country and is happy to assimilate and respect the present inhabitants can be expected to call themselves English.
It is clear as daylight that the Palestinians - up til the late 1800s - were over 90% non-jewish and had been suppressed for 2000 years by a series of imperial conquerors. So when the light of freedom glimmered with the end of the Ottoman empire it is a tragedy that a string of fanatical jews have decided to invade this land, illegally and militarily, and dispossess or slaughter the native peoples whilst creating an apartheid state.
The invading zionists specifically did not respect or want to assimilate with the people. They specifically want to disenfranchise the Palestinians by claiming some 2000 year old divine right. Sadly these atrocities are likely to continue because they are backed by the USA. I am just ashamed of the British sycophantic quizzling politicians who grovel at Uncle Sam's feet. But mostly I pray for the day when peace and sanity prevail and Palestine is returned 100% to the Palestinians. while all illegal-immigrant jews who wish to stay are obliged to apply for immigration by proving they will cooperate, tolerate and respect their new country. Of course there must be international apology too.
Posted by Nimrod on April 23, 2009 #74840

All you people - jews, Christians and Muslims alike forget one important thing - The Israeli state was created not for the love of Jews, but because all other countries found a "peacfull" way of getting rid of Jews in their states. The holocost was the excuse they needed.
I realy dont understand the hatred for jews found in all history. Its just a religion, nothing more. The hatred of jews created the "zionist" movment. The zionists are a small fraction of the jews in Israel, so all you people who keep saying things against the zionists - you can stop, we are not zionists, we just want to live quietly. I want my son to live in a peacfull country, thats it.
Posted by SAHAR on February 15, 2009 #67672

OUR ANCESTRAL VILLAGE AL TELL NEAR NABLUS HAS LAYERS OF HISTORY EVIDENCE OF HUMAN OCCUPATION PRE-DATES CHRIST BY 3,200 YEARS .... HOW DOES THIS COMPARE TO A BLONDE HAIRED CAUCASION SO-CALLED JEWISH ISRAELI RECENTLY ARRIVED FROM UKRAINE WHO CLAIMS TO OWN ISRAEL? GENETICISTS AT HADASSAH MEDICAL CENTRE IN JERUSALEM CLAIM THAT MANY SEPHARDI JEWS WHO ARE DESCENDED FROM OLD JERUSALEMITE FAMILIES (A DEAR FRIEND OF MINE TRACED HER OWN FAMILY 13 GENERATIONS IN THE ANCIENT CITY ..... THEREFORE , TO ME, HER LAND RIGHTS ARE THE SAME AS OURS) HAVE CLOSE D.N.A .... CLOSE ENOUGH TO BE DISTANT COUSINS AND OFTEN BLOOD GROUP B OR AB... (PREDOMINANTLY SEMITIC) WHEREAS TESTS ON EUROPEAN JEWS BORE NO RESEMLANCE WHATSOEVER BUT CLEARLY INDICATED THAT SUCH IMMIGRANTS WERE CAUCASIAN AND HAD NO BIOLOGICAL LINKS TO THE ANCIENT HEBREWS,,,,,, SO WHO IS THE OUTSIDER HERE I WONDER ?IT IS NOT THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE
Posted by abu kareem on January 27, 2009 #65489

giving that what this guy -zvi- is saying about Israelis not being all Ashkenazim,well.. you said it, the rest are Iraqi Yemenite... etc ... not Palestinians not original inhabitants
but why do you ignore the fact that more than 70% of the lately imported Russian Jews to Israel are not even Jews...
and for the -curiousamerican- i say: read history right Canaanites were way b4 Israelis and made an actual civilization and a state that last for two thousand years ... not a few decades. and more than that ... they stayed even when Israelis were there and stayed while Jews were perished by Persians.. THINK natives stayed ... Jews came and perished ..
Posted by Zvi on January 25, 2009 #65239

To all the posters who are claiming that Israelis are Ashkenazi/European Jews, you're ignoring the fact that more than half of the Jewish population of Israel is Mizrahi/Sefardi, of middle eastern ancestry. The majority of the Jewish population is descended from Jews expelled in the 1950s from Iraq, Morocco, Yemen, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia, Algeria. They understand the Arab culture and their families have lived within it for generations. They're not going anywhere.

As for the Ashkenazi/European Jews in Israeli society, a portion of them are descended from the Zionist immigration of the First, Second, Third, etc immigration waves. BUT, a significant number (today labelled "Haredim") are descended from the religious Jews who arrived in the 1500s, the followers of the 100 Rabbis in 1700, the Hasidic immigration of 1776, the immigration of the followers of the Vilna Gaon in 1812. Their families have been in the country for generations and in fact they opposed Zionism.

The posters on this site are overlooking facts which are inconvenient to their arguments. The truth is a two way street

Posted by Brent on January 15, 2009 #63720

modern zionist european jews are khazars.
Posted by sal860 on January 11, 2009 #63170

Zionists don't just want to "return" to their alleged homeland, they want to establish a national state that resembles an ancient kingdom.

It's not about a human right to return to a homeland, but about power and control. That's the reason of the conflict.
Just ask yourself, why Israel is rejecting the Palestinians' right to return to the homes they were expelled in 1948. It has never been about the right to return, but all about a racist nationalist ideology.

And for "God is Love!" below, you couldn't be more wrong about this. When, over the past 1400 years, did the Arabs fight the Jews over the Holy Land? Only after Zionism. So think about it.

Zionism has to be defeated for peace to prevail.
Posted by forever_autumn on January 8, 2009 #62765

The original inhabitants of America were Indians. Does this give them the right to reclaim their land back, specially in a bloody and brutal way? Would you ask then "where were the Anglo-Americans in America's history?"
Posted by curiousamerican on January 7, 2009 #62732

In case I'm not clear: Israel was a nation. Jews come from Israel. Jews were dispersed. Then they came back. Regardless, they are Israelis or Israelites. But Palestinians weren't called Palestinians before AD 70 for sure, so who were they, where did they come from, why can't they return, etc.?
Posted by curiousamerican on January 7, 2009 #62731

I'm reading through this timeline, and it fails to tell me WHO the Palestinians are. Where did they come from? When were they "palestinians". They were obviously something else before that. So what nation(s) did they come from and why should they have rights to the land?
Posted by Levim Mastor on January 6, 2009 #62631

Why don't we deal with the root of the problem : Before the "creation of the Israel entity" in 1948, this land was called PALESTINE and was occupied by the British.
Jews persecuted in all Europe and even north America (because the Jews are considered responsible for the death of Jesus : Judas...) fled, and this what is funny, found refuge in mostly Muslim countries : Palestine, north Africa, Turkey…

After WWII, the whole world felt sorry for the Jews (especially France which had a Fascists government that sent thousands of Jews to the camps) and needed to be pardoned for that, pushed with the U.S. and the British to have Palestine given to the Jews for them as a state (1948).
It is like someone welcoming you to his hose because you (and family) were in great danger and after a while you kick that guy out of his home…that’s what the Israelis have done to the Palestinians, think about it…

Let’s not forget Ben Gurion and “friends” placing bombs all over Palestine at that time (before 1948) and calling that fight for the future Israeli state and now Palestinians are doing same thing to recover their state.

All the Israelis come from Europe (Poland, Russia, France … ) and some others from the U.S. there is no direct ancestor to an Israeli that is from that region because it is Palestine


Israel is an illegitimate entity, some would say a Nazi legacy…
The world knows that, no one is fooled

Give back the land to the Palestinians, ALL the land and call it Palestine once again, maybe France is willing to give Monaco to create a new Israeli state or the U.S giving up Florida or Montana for that purpose, just think about it,,,how the French or the Americans would react to that…that’s the root of the problem
Posted by Yasmeen on December 30, 2008 #61534

A greeting to the Palestinians and Jews and to all humanity around the world. If you look at the wheel of the human history,you will find a pattern which is a message from ALLAH [God].Conquest and transfer of power goes around in this wheel. But we need to learn how to live together in peace. It dosn't matter much where the Canaanites or the Israelites were.WE ARE HERE NOW!If we learn to eleminate the greedy part of us.
And thank you very much for very useful and valueable information.
Yasmeen Eid
Posted by Russell on August 8, 2008 #48502

Why is it that UN resolutions for Israel are not enforced?
Posted by iswedm on February 22, 2008 #29639

Escavation in Palestine did not found any evidence which could claim that there was a temple built in Palestine and specialy under the Haram.

Thanks
Posted by Brent on February 16, 2008 #29184

li bond asks where were the Palestinians. The Palestinian Arabs are a mixture of the various people of Ancient Canaan and later Greeks and Arabs. They have much more true Semitic blood then the White European Ashkenazi Jews that are intermarried jew/gentile mutts at best. The Eastern European Ashkenazi Jews that make up the much of "israeli" society (and almost all the elite in "israel" and their gov.) likely are descendants of the Khazars.
Posted by Li Bond on February 11, 2008 #28914

you say
ca. 1,250 B.C.
Israelite conquest of Canaan.

Where were the Palestinians then?
Posted by kamel amer on February 7, 2008 #28731

I dont really know when the Israelis would come to believe and understand that it is impossible to live peacefully in such a place when they ignore the ligitimate rights of the Palestinian arabs to live also peacefully in their Land...Might is not always Right ! Accordingly Israel cannot live eternally as a citadel of power who could subjugate all people around....I call upon the peacelovers ( if any) in Israel to belive that.....
Posted by Brent on August 4, 2007 #18824

Great website. The comment by the poster "Big jew" is a great example of the hatred, racism, and evil of Zionists. It is very clearly when one reads the statements of these Zionists they are just like groups such as the KKK they expouse "love" of their "people" will hating everyone else. We need a just solution for all the people of Palestine, Muslim, Christian, and Jew. That solution must include a Palestinian state on the pre-1967 war borders, Palestinian capitol of East Jerusalem, and return of refugees to their original homes. Remember the Canaanites were the first in Palestine 3000 B.C.E. even before "Israelites".
Posted by Abdul Rahman on June 3, 2007 #16601

Dear Sirs, I thank you for the this valuable website. The link http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Palestine-Remembered/Story564.html provides a narration of Palestine's history up to 1949. What about from then up to our present date?.. We are now 40 years after the six-day war.. Where is the history on this up to date .. this page is very valuable and needs to be completed from `1949 to our present day in both Arabic and English as one generation has passed already and they need to be reminded of PALESTINE. Thank you for a prompt response.
Posted by Said Mansour on May 8, 2007 #15580

This is great and very helpful. Support by pictures and maps will add too much to this great site (a picture worth 1000 words) Thank you and hope to see the addition soon
Posted by Rasha on April 23, 2007 #15152

Shlomo: it will end whenever the Israeli Jews decide to correct their mistakes/crimes and offer the Palestinians the justice they deserve. Palestinian refugees, old and young, want to return to Palestine because it is their right to do so - Palestine/Israel is their home. They should not be living as refugees and unwelcome guests in other peoples' lands. So keep pondering on the issue - but please ask the right questions.
Posted by Big jew on February 27, 2007 #14154

The only way to solve the palistinan problem is a final soultion
Posted by rara on February 6, 2007 #13554

when is it going to end ??? i dont know maybe it is a question off the old generation that want to come back to palestine
Posted by osama on December 15, 2006 #12294

Hello, I think it would be so great if you could have your web-site in more other languages! Thanks for providing me with some information through your web-site however i couldn't figure-out some information so just i'd like to emphasize again and again the idea of having many other more languages,wandering about your site's origin/location. Tnanks, Menna Hassan.