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NY Times: Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity
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Posted on June 9, 2010
By NICHOLAS WADE

Jewish communities in Europe and the Middle East share many genes inherited from the ancestral Jewish population that lived in the Middle East some 3,000 years ago, even though each community also carries genes from other sources ؟ usually the country in which it lives.

That is the conclusion of two new genetic surveys, the first to use genome-wide scanning devices to compare many Jewish communities around the world.

A major surprise from both surveys is the genetic closeness of the two Jewish communities of Europe, the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. The Ashkenazim thrived in Northern and Eastern Europe until their devastation by the Hitler regime, and now live mostly in the United States and Israel. The Sephardim were exiled from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497 and moved to the Ottoman Empire, North Africa and the Netherlands.

The two genome surveys extend earlier studies based just on the Y chromosome, the genetic element carried by all men. They refute the suggestion made last year by the historian Shlomo Sand in his book "The Invention of the Jewish People" that Jews have no common origin but are a miscellany of people in Europe and Central Asia who converted to Judaism at various times.

Jewish communities from Europe, the Middle East and the Caucasus all have substantial genetic ancestry that traces back to the Levant, except for Ethiopian Jews and two Judaic communities in India, which are genetically much closer to their host populations.

The surveys provide rich data about the genetic ancestry of various Jewish populations that is of great interest to historians. "I'm constantly impressed by the manner in which the geneticists keep moving ahead with new projects and illuminating what we know of history," said Lawrence H. Schiffman, a professor of Judaic studies at New York University.

One of the surveys was conducted by Gil Atzmon of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Harry Ostrer of New York University and appears in the current American Journal of Human Genetics. The other, led by Doron M. Behar of the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa and Richard Villems of the University of Tartu in Estonia, is published in Thursday's edition of the journal Nature.

Dr. Atzmon and Dr. Ostrer have developed a way of timing demographic events from the genetic elements shared by different Jewish communities. Their calculations show that Iraqi and Iranian Jews separated from other Jewish communities about 2,500 years ago. This genetic finding presumably reflects a historical event, the destruction of the First Temple at Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C. and the exile of much of the Jewish population to his capital at Babylon.

The shared genetic elements suggest that members of any Jewish community are related to one another as closely as are fourth or fifth cousins in a large population, which is about 10 times higher than the relationship between two people chosen at random off the streets of New York City, Dr. Atzmon said.

Ashkenazic and Sephardic communities have roughly 30 percent European ancestry, with most of the rest from the Middle East, the two surveys find. The two communities seem very similar to each other genetically, which is unexpected because they have been separated for so long.

One explanation is that they come from the same Jewish source population in Europe. The Atzmon-Ostrer team found that the genomic signature of Ashkenazim and Sephardim was very similar to that of Italian Jews, suggesting that an ancient population in northern Italy of Jews intermarried with Italians could have been the common origin. The Ashkenazim first appear in Northern Europe around 800 A.D., but historians suspect that they arrived there from Italy.

Another explanation, which may be complementary to the first, is that there was far more interchange and intermarriage than expected between the two communities in medieval times, despite the fact that they spoke different languages.

The genetics confirms a trend noticed by historians: that there was more contact between Ashkenazim and Sephardim than suspected, with Italy as the linchpin of interchange, said Aron Rodrigue, a Stanford University historian and expert on Sephardic and Ottoman history.

A common surname among Italian Jews is Morpurgo, meaning someone from Marburg in Germany. Also, Dr. Rodrigue said, one of the most common names among the Sephardim who settled in the Ottoman Empire is Eskenazi, indicating that many Ashkenazim had joined the Sephardic community there.

The two genetic surveys indicate "that there may be common origins shared by the two groups, but also that there were extensive contacts and settlements," Dr. Rodrigue said.

Hebrew is generally thought to have been a dead language from around the second century B.C. until it was revived as the language of modern Israel. But it could have served as the lingua franca between the Ashkenazic community, speaking Yiddish, and the Ladino-speaking Sephardim. "When Jews met each other, they spoke Hebrew," Dr. Schiffman said, referring to the medieval period.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/10/science/10jews.html?ref=global-home&pagewanted=print
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Posted by Brent on September 6, 2012 #145928

Real genetic research:

pnas . org (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America) Steven M. Bray et al. 2010 Note: (AJ) stands for "Ashkenazi Jewish population".

Title: "Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population"

"The fixation index, FST, calculated concurrently to the PCA, confirms that there is a closer relationship between the AJ and several European populations (Tuscans, Italians, and French) than between the AJ and Middle Eastern populations (Fig. S2B). This finding can be visualized with a phylogenetic tree built using the FST data (Fig. S2C), showing that the AJ population branches with the Europeans and not Middle Easterners. Two recent studies performing PCA and population clustering with high-density SNP genotyping from many Jewish Diaspora populations, both showed that of the Jewish populations, the Ashkenazi consistently cluster closest to Europeans (13, 25).
...
Using these proxy ancestral populations, we calculated the amount of European admixture in the AJ population to be 35 to 55%."

Geneticist Avshalom Zoossman-Diskin from "Tel Aviv University" (again the land looted from the Palestinian village of Shaykh Al-Muwannis) notes the following in his professional genetic research article entitled: "The origin of Eastern European Jews revealed by autosomal, sex chromosomal and mtDNA polymorphisms" (available at the ncbi website and also Biology-Direct online scientific journal database among others). Note in Zoossmann-Diskin's research the acronym "EEJ" stands for Eastern European Jews aka Ashkenazi Jews.

"Results

According to the autosomal polymorphisms the investigated Jewish populations do not share a common origin, and EEJ are closer to Italians in particular and to Europeans in general than to the other Jewish populations. The similarity of EEJ to Italians and Europeans is also supported by the X chromosomal haplogroups.

Conclusions

The close genetic resemblance to Italians accords with the historical presumption that Ashkenazi Jews started their migrations across Europe in Italy and with historical evidence that conversion to Judaism was common in ancient Rome. The reasons for the discrepancy between the biparental markers and the uniparental markers are discussed.
...
EEJ are the largest and most investigated Jewish community, yet their history as Franco-German Jewry is known to us only since their appearance in the 9th century, and their subsequent migration a few hundred years later to Eastern Europe [4,5]. Where did these Jews come from? It seems that they came to Germany and France from Italy [5-8]. It is also possible that some Jews migrated northward from the Italian colonies on the northern shore of the Black Sea [9]. All these Jews are likely the descendents of proselytes. Conversion to Judaism was common in Rome in the first centuries BC and AD. Judaism gained many followers among all ranks of Roman Society [10-13]."

And most recently on August 6, 2012 "Israeli"-American geneticist Eran Elhaik, PhD from John Hopkins University released the new genetic research of all in an article (available on the scholarly articles website arxiv . org entitled "The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses"

Eran Elhaik PhD (again from John Hopkins University in the US) states; "The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars. Thus far, however, their contribution has been estimated only empirically; the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian Hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian Hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland Hypothesis. We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses - including principal component, biogeographical origin, admixture, identity by descent, allele sharing distance, and uniparental analyses - to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry."
Posted by Brent on September 6, 2012 #145927

This nytimes article is Zionist propaganda bs and "Dr. Schiffman" is a retard "Hebrew" was and is a DEAD language; so-called "Biblical Hebrew" doesn't exist today and if you have for example say The Oxford University Press "The Jewish Study Bible" you can see on just about every other single PAGE footnotes saying "meaning of hebrew UNCERTAIN" i.e. even so-called "Biblical Hebrew" has to be TENUOUSLY "reconstructed" (LOL, its dead and they are "reconstructing" it lol). As for modern "spoken hebrew" (as in "israel") it is a FRAUD largely based on COPYING ARABIC!!! This is admitted the book "Revival of the Classical Tongue" even (see that book, page 66) on how Eliezer Perlman (aka Eliezer "Ben-Yehuda" a nickname he was given after the fact) born in 1858 CE in what is now modern day Belarus (and he died in 1922 CE) made up tons of NEOLOGISMS (aka new words) for the "new 'Hebrew language'" (LOL!!!) and he heavily did this by straight up RIPPING OFF and copying from existing Arabic words and Arabic roots and making "sound changes" between Arabic and Hebrew (to make up these new "Hebrew" neologisms again aka new words). For example, I will cite a scholarly source right here: C. H. M. Versteegh, Arabic Grammar And Qur'anic Exegesis In Early Islam, op cit., p. 28.

"As a matter of fact, both Syriac and Hebrew grammatical terminology, as we know it, are a CALQUE of the Arabic terminology"

"calque" is defined as; "(Linguistics) another word for loan translation"

And as for genetics the myths peddled in this article by the Zionist owned "New York Times" (mainstream Zionist owned rag of the Sulzberger's are laughably false and have been refuted over and over (you can tell the propaganda of this article by the fake they mention a mythological "First Temple" lol that NO serious historical record supports).

From user Bricology on Wikipedia; Quote-

Not so fast. First, the so-called "Herodian reconstruction" is only believed to be a "reconstruction", rather than a new construction, and it didn't occur during the reign (or lifetime) of Herod. As Wailing Wall states, "Just over half the wall, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, commonly believed to have been constructed around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, but recent excavations indicate that the works were NOT finished during Herod's lifetime. The remaining layers were ADDED from the 7th century onwards. That's a significant difference from the blanket assertion of "Herod built it". Also, "reconstruction" is a PROBLEMATIC and subjective CLAIM. "Reconstructed" from WHAT? If someone claimed to have built a "reconstruction" of say, the First Library at Alexandria, they would need to be able to demonstrate that their reconstruction was accurate to the original; something that is IMPOSSIBLE to do in either instance. A reconstruction of say, one of Frank Lloyd Wright's buildings, OTOH, would be straightforward and uncontroversial, since the plans still exist. The fact is that the existence of a First Temple CANNOT be proved, so EVEN calling something a "Second Temple" is likewise PROBLEMATIC. And even if a First Temple of some sort existed, proving its location (much less dimensions, materials, etc.) is also IMPOSSIBLE. So what we are left with is a cultural artifact of something that is believed to have been reconstructed. I'm willing to entertain the possibility of a Second Temple having existed, but that does nothing to bridge the gulf between the hypothetical First Temple (which is fair play for skeptical enquiry) and the Second Temple, which is an archaeological matter." lol

Putting aside of course even the Bibles that many retarded Zionist Khazar/Italian (see geneticist Avshalom Zoossmann Diskin of "Tel Aviv University", a university that sits on land stolen and looted from the ethnically cleansed Palestinian village of Shaykh Al-Muwannis) says the Canaanites, Jebusites, Amorites, etc. lived in the land of Canaan (Palestine) first to start with (see even Genesis 15:19-21 lol). And here is a simple quote from Robert Pollack (published even in Jewish publications surprisingly) affiliated with Columbia University (see columbia . edu)

"there are no DNA sequences common to all Jews and absent from all non-Jews. There is nothing in the human genome that makes or diagnoses a person as a Jew."
Posted by Webmaster on March 6, 2011 #131209

I just watched the following National Geographic documentary called:The Human Family Tree which you can watch on NetFlix as follows:

http://www.netflix.com/Movie/National-Geographic-The-Human-Family-Tree/70122464

Briefly, it attempted to trace the DNA of a sample of people from all different races in NY City. It is over 90 minutes and exciting to watch. It compared African Americans, Porto Ricans, Turkish, Indian, Greek, ...etc. The narrator reached the family tree of every body except the Turkish couple after he matched everybody. Then he finally said these Turkish couple had 50% match with Achkenazic Jews. Go Figure; do you think that is a surprise!

When the dust settles and when the this subject is no longer political for Zionist Jews, we shall find how these researchers & scientists of such studies have been biased (or influenced) in their judgments and conclusions. Note how most of these studies carefully compared Jews to most races except to Turkic people!
Posted by Brent on January 18, 2011 #129285

This article is a joke and has been refuted; "The populations that the samples were taken from are a minority within the Jewish population. This study is deeply flawed by selecting only certain segments of the Jewish population that are more likely to be related to the original Middle Eastern genome population. Just look at how many blue eyed, blonde haired Jews there are. They're obviously not Middle Eastern. The modern day Jew is mostly of European origin rather than Middle Eastern. Jewish people of Middle Eastern descent are now the minority."

In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians)

Results of a DNA study by geneticist Ariella Oppenheim appears to match historical accounts that Arab Israelis and Palestinians,[90][91] together as the one same population, represent modern "descendants of a core population that lived in the area since prehistoric times", albeit religiously first Christianized then largely Islamized, and all eventually culturally Arabized.[90] Referring to those of the Muslim faith more specifically, it reaffirmed that Palestinian "Muslim Arabs are descended from Christians and Jews who lived in the southern Levant, a region that includes Israel, Sinai and part of Jordan." Geneticist Michael Hammer praised "the study for 'focusing in detail on the Jewish and Palestinian populations.'"[90]
Posted by Brent on June 10, 2010 #115040

All I have to say about Khazar "Jews" is from ncbi genetic studies website; "Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors."